ISBN Title Author (SN/FN) Series BIC 2.1 Edition Copyright Year Pages Description
9781400879588 Turbulent Flow Schubauer, Galen Brandt,Tchen, Chan Mou Princeton Legacy Library Physics 1945 134 Part of the Princeton Aeronautical Paperback series designed to bring to students and research engineers outstanding portions of the twelve-volume High Speed Aerodynamics and Jet Propulsion series. These books have been prepared by direct reproduction of the text from the original series and no attempt has been made to provide introductory material or to eliminate cross reference to other portions of the original volumes.

Originally published in 1945.

Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
9781400828678 How to Solve It Polya, G. Princeton Science Library Mathematical logic, Geometry 1945 288 A perennial bestseller by eminent mathematician G. Polya, How to Solve It will show anyone in any field how to think straight. In lucid and appealing prose, Polya reveals how the mathematical method of demonstrating a proof or finding an unknown can be of help in attacking any problem that can be "reasoned" out—from building a bridge to winning a game of anagrams. Generations of readers have relished Polya's deft—indeed, brilliant—instructions on stripping away irrelevancies and going straight to the heart of the problem.
9781400876273 Stellar Evolution Struve, Otto Princeton Legacy Library Physics 1950 298 The sum of centuries of speculation on the probable course of evolution in stars is discussed by one of the world's greatest astronomers, with a full report of his own conclusions, How long stars exist, the relation of their luminosity to their mass, the evolution of a star in relation to the main sequence, the significance of rotation, are among the crucial problems considered. While the discussion is replete with technical detail, sufficient background is included to enable the amateur astronomer or anyone with scientific training to follow the argument.

Originally published in 1950.

The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
9781400876105 Hydrogen Ion Concentration Ricci, John Ettore Princeton Legacy Library Chemistry 1952 498 In a highly original approach the author presents a general and systematic treatment of relations involving the hydrogen ion concentration of aqueous solutions. Mathematical exactness is developed as far as possible without dependence upon particular theories of ionization.

Originally published in 1952.

The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
9781400877553 General Theory of High Speed Aerodynamics Sears, William Rees Princeton Legacy Library Physics 1954 778 Volume VI of the High Speed Aerodynamics and Jet Propulsion series. This volume includes: physical and mathematical aspects of high speed flows; small perturbation theory; supersonic and transonic small perturbation theory; higher order approximations; nonlinear subsonic and transonic flow theory; nonlinear supersonic steady-flow theory; characteristic methods; flows with shock waves.

Originally published in 1954.

Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
9781400877195 Diffusion and Heat Exchange in Chemical Kinetics Frank-Kamenetskii, David Albertovich Princeton Legacy Library Physics 1955 384 Frank-Kamenetskii, a leader in Russian science, was the first to define conditions for two stable operating regimes in chemical reactions, one controlled by chemical reactions, the other by diffusion processes. In this book he treats mathematically the subjects of reaction ignition, quenching, and periodic processes in chemical kinetics as found in flames, combustion of solids, and other chemical reactions. The book was translated from the Russian by the late N. Thou and edited by R. Wilhelm.

Originally published in 1955.

The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
9781400877027 Combustion Processes Lewis, Bernard,Pease, Robert Norton,Taylor, H. S. Princeton Legacy Library Physics 1956 696 Volume II of the High Speed Aerodynamics and Jet Propulsion series. This volume includes treatments of all aspects of combustion necessary to the development of jet and rocket engines.

Originally published in 1956.

Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
9781400884186 Angular Momentum in Quantum Mechanics Edmonds, A. R. Investigations in Physics,Princeton Landmarks in Mathematics and Physics Quantum physics (quantum mechanics & quantum field theory) 1957 160 This book offers a concise introduction to the angular momentum, one of the most fundamental quantities in all of quantum mechanics. Beginning with the quantization of angular momentum, spin angular momentum, and the orbital angular momentum, the author goes on to discuss the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients for a two-component system. After developing the necessary mathematics, specifically spherical tensors and tensor operators, the author then investigates the 3-j, 6-j, and 9-j symbols. Throughout, the author provides practical applications to atomic, molecular, and nuclear physics. These include partial-wave expansions, the emission and absorption of particles, the proton and electron quadrupole moment, matrix element calculation in practice, and the properties of the symmetrical top molecule.
9781400879908 Aerodynamic Components of Aircraft at High Speeds   Princeton Legacy Library Physics 1957 864 Volume VII of the High Speed Aerodynamics and Jet Propulsion series. It deals with applications to specific components of the complete aircraft. Sections of the volume include: aerodynamics of wings at high speed, aerodynamics of bodies at high speed, interaction problems, propellers at high speed, diffusers and nozzles, and nonsteady wing characteristics.

Originally published in 1957.

Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
9781400887712 Some Problems in Chemical Kinetics and Reactivity, Volume 1 Semenov, Nikolai Nikolaevich Princeton Legacy Library Physics 1958 254 This translation, in two volumes, of an introductory paper to a Symposium on Chemical Kinetics and Reactivity, held in Moscow in 1954, has been enlarged and revised by the author, winner of the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1956 and one of the two or three top flight Russian physical scientists. Volume 1 covers a wide range of important work and includes a survey of radical and chain reactions and a discussion of chemical changes, direct mono- and bi-molecular processes, ionic reactions, heterogeneous catalysis, initiation and destruction of radical chains on solid surfaces.

Originally published in 1958.

The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
9781400874552 The Neutrino. (IP-5) Allen, James Smith Investigations in Physics,Princeton Legacy Library Quantum physics (quantum mechanics & quantum field theory) 1958 180 A complete treatise on the subject of the neutrino includes interpretation of experimental results in terms of existing theories on this nuclear particle. It incorporates material on post-parity experiments which appeared following the Lee and Yang discoveries in 1956 concerning parity non-conservation in weak interactions.

Originally published in 1958.

The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
9781400877539 Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics Emmons, Howard W. Princeton Legacy Library Physics 1958 784 Volume II of the High Speed Aerodynamics and Jet Propulsion series. The series which stress the more fundamental aspects of the various phenomena that make up the broad field of aeronautical science. The aerodynamicist and gas dynamicist will find both the classical and the important new concepts of gas dynamics presented in an informative and stimulating manner. Specialists in the study of gas dynamics have contributed Sections as follows: H. S. Tsien, The Equations of Gas Dynamics; L. Crocco, One-Dimensional Treatment of Steady Gas Dynamics; A. Kantrowitz, One-Dimensional Treatment of Nonsteady Gas Dynamics; W. Hayes, The Basic Theory of Gasdynamic Discontinuities; H. Polachek and R. J. Seeger, Shock Wave Interactions; H. G. Stever, Condensation Phenomena in High Speed Flows; T. H. Von Karman, H. W. Emmons, G. I. Taylor, and R. S. Tankin, Gas Dynamics of Combustion and Detonation; S. Schaaf and P. Chambre, Flow of Rarefied Gases.

Originally published in 1958.

Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
9781400878451 Physics of Elementary Particles Jackson, John David Princeton Legacy Library Quantum physics (quantum mechanics & quantum field theory) 1958 146 This is an introductory account of the physics of elementary particles and their interactions, with a minimum of formal apparatus and an ease of reading which, at present, is found in few other books in physics. It is designed for graduate students and for physicists not specializing in the field. The various phenomena are interpreted and correlated largely by means of elementary theoretical arguments needing little background beyond a first course in quantum mechanics. Numerous references to the original literature will allow the reader to probe more deeply into the topics discussed. Selected topics include scattering, photoproduction, K-mesons and hyperons, theoretical models, weak decay processes, and analysis of recent experiments on nonconservation of parity.

Originally published in 1958.

The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
9781400879175 Structure and Evolution of Stars Schwarzschild, Martin Princeton Legacy Library Astrophysics 1958 318 With the development of nuclear physics the theory of the stellar interior entered a new phase. Many new investigations have been conducted and the results published in a variety of specialized media. This book brings these results together in a single volume and summarizes the present status of the theory of stellar evolution.

Originally published in 1958.

The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
9781400879960 Nuclear Structure Eisenbud, Leonard,Wigner, Eugene P. Princeton Legacy Library Atomic & molecular physics 1958 138 A clear and well-organized review of what is presently known about nuclear structure. Emphasis is less upon mathematical detail than upon the obtaining of a clear perspective which relates the various lines of approach to this complex and rapidly developing field. Particular attention is paid to nuclear models and to the several types of nuclear reactions.

Originally published in 1958.

The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
9781400887729 Some Problems in Chemical Kinetics and Reactivity, Volume 2 Semenov, Nikolai Nikolaevich Princeton Legacy Library Physics 1959 254 This edition, considerably revised since Russian publication in 1954, now includes the theories of thermal and chain explosion reviewed in the light of very recent work. The classical example of the reaction between hydrogen and oxygen is treated in detail, and among the large selection of chain reactions analyzed are the gas phase cracking of hydrocarbons and the oxidation of methane and other hydrocarbons in the liquid phase. The book summarizes many recent and unpublished Soviet investigations in the field.

Originally published in 1959.

The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
9781400877911 Jet Propulsion Engines Lancaster, Otis E. Princeton Legacy Library Physics 1959 842 Volume XII of the High Speed Aerodynamics and Jet Propulsion series. Partial Contents: Historical development of jet propulsion; basic principles of jet propulsion; analyses of the various types of jet propulsion engines including the turbojet, the turboprop, the ramjet, and intermittent jets, as well as solid and liquid propellant rocket engines and the ramrocket. Another section deals with jet driven rotors. The final sections discuss the use of atomic energy in jet propulsion and the future prospects of jet propulsion.

Originally published in 1959.

Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
9781400879410 Turbulent Flows and Heat Transfer Lin, Chia-Ch'iao Princeton Legacy Library Physics 1959 570 Volume V of the High Speed Aerodynamics and Jet Propulsion series. Topics include transition from laminar to turbulent flow; turbulent flow; statistical theories of turbulence; conduction of heat; convective heat transfer and friction in flow of liquids; convective heat transfer in gases; cooling by protective fluid films; physical basis of thermal radiation; and engineering calculations of radiant heat exchange.

Originally published in 1959.

Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
9781400875603 Design and Performance of Gas Turbine Power Plants   High Speed Aerodynamics and Jet Propulsion,Princeton Legacy Library Physics 1960 582 Volume XI of the High Speed Aerodynamics and Jet Propulsion series. Edited by W.R. Hawthorne and W.T. Olson. This is a comprehensive presentation of basic problems involved in the design of aircraft gas turbines, including sections covering requirements and processes, experimental techniques, fuel injection, flame stabilization, mixing processes, fuels, combustion chamber development, materials for gas turbine applications, turbine blade vibration, and performance.

Originally published in 1960.

Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
9781400874941 High Speed Wing Theory Cohen, Doris,Jones, Robert Thomas Princeton Aeronautical Paperbacks,Princeton Legacy Library Technology: general issues 1960 252 Part of the Princeton Aeronautical Paperback series designed to bring to students and research engineers outstanding portions of the twelve-volume High Speed Aerodynamics and Jet Propulsion series. These books have been prepared by direct reproduction of the text from the original series and no attempt has been made to provide introductory material or to eliminate cross reference to other portions of the original volumes.

Originally published in 1960.

Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
9781400877706 Higher Approximations in Aerodynamic Theory Lighthill, M. J. Princeton Legacy Library Physics 1960 156 Part of the Princeton Aeronautical Paperback series designed to bring to students and research engineers outstanding portions of the twelve-volume High Speed Aerodynamics and Jet Propulsion series. These books have been prepared by direct reproduction of the text from the original series and no attempt has been made to provide introductory material or to eliminate cross reference to other portions of the original volumes.

Originally published in 1960.

Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
9781400877775 Hydrodynamics Birkhoff, Garrett Princeton Legacy Library Fluid mechanics 1960 202 A complete revision of the first edition this book. The author has added a chapter on turbulence, and has expanded the work on paradoxes and modeling. W.M. Elsasser said of the first edition, "A book such as this, concentrating as it does on the boundaries of fundamental progress, should be indispensable to all those engaged in hydrodynamical research who are concerned with the type of generalization that so often in the past has led to fundamental progress."

Originally published in 1960.

The <b>Princeton Legacy Library</b> uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
9781400879021 Small Perturbation Theory Sears, William Rees Princeton Legacy Library Physics 1960 72 Part of the Princeton Aeronautical Paperback series designed to bring to students and research engineers outstanding portions of the twelve-volume <i>High Speed Aerodynamics and Jet Propulsion</i> series. These books have been prepared by direct reproduction of the text from the original series and no attempt has been made to provide introductory material or to eliminate cross reference to other portions of the original volumes.

Originally published in 1960.

The <b>Princeton Legacy Library</b> uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
9781400879076 Solid Propellant Rockets Huggett, Clayton,Bartley, C. E.,Mills, Mark M. Princeton Legacy Library Physics 1960 176 Part of the Princeton Aeronautical Paperback series designed to bring to students and research engineers outstanding portions of the twelve-volume <i>High Speed Aerodynamics and Jet Propulsion</i> series. These books have been prepared by direct reproduction of the text from the original series and no attempt has been made to provide introductory material or to eliminate cross reference to other portions of the original volumes.

Originally published in 1960.

The <b>Princeton Legacy Library</b> uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
9781400879939 Gasdynamic Discontinuities Hayes, Wallace Dean Princeton Legacy Library Physics 1960 78 Part of the Princeton Aeronautical Paperback series designed to bring to students and research engineers outstanding portions of the twelve-volume <i>High Speed Aerodynamics and Jet Propulsion</i> series. These books have been prepared by direct reproduction of the text from the original series and no attempt has been made to provide introductory material or to eliminate cross reference to other portions of the original volumes.

Originally published in 1960.

The <b>Princeton Legacy Library</b> uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
9781400879953 Liquid Propellant Rockets Altman, David Princeton Legacy Library Physics 1960 198 David Altman, James M. Carter, S. S. Penner, Martin Summerfield. High Temperature Equilibrium, Expansion Processes, Combustion of Liquid Propellants, The Liquid Propellants Rocket Engine.

Originally published in 1960.

The <b>Princeton Legacy Library</b> uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
9781400875610 Fundamental Physics of Gases Griffing, V.,Herzfeld, Karl Ferdinand Princeton Aeronautical Paperbacks,Princeton Legacy Library Materials / States of matter 1961 140 Part of the Princeton Aeronautical Paperback series designed to bring to students and research engineers outstanding portions of the twelve-volume <i>High Speed Aerodynamics and Jet Propulsion</i> series. These books have been prepared by direct reproduction of the text from the original series and no attempt has been made to provide introductory material or to eliminate cross reference to other portions of the original volumes.

Originally published in 1961.

The <b>Princeton Legacy Library</b> uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
9781400886890 Statistical Theories of Turbulence Lin, Chia-Ch'iao Princeton Legacy Library Physics 1961 68 Part of the Princeton Aeronautical Paperback series designed to bring to students and research engineers outstanding portions of the twelve-volume <i>High Speed Aerodynamics and Jet Propulsion</i> series. These books have been prepared by direct reproduction of the text from the original series and no attempt has been made to provide introductory material or to eliminate cross reference to other portions of the original volumes.

Originally published in 1961.

The <b>Princeton Legacy Library</b> uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
9781400875030 High Speed Problems of Aircraft and Experimental Methods   Princeton Legacy Library Physics 1961 1024 Volume VIII of the <i>High Speed Aerodynamics and Jet Propulsion</i> series. This volume includes: performance calculation at high speed; stability and control of high speed aircraft; aeroelasticity and flutter; model testing; transonic wind tunnels; supersonic tunnels; hypersonic experimental facilities; low density wind tunnels; shock tube; wind tunnel measurements; instrumented models in free flight; piloted aircraft testing; free flight range methods.

Originally published in 1961.

The <b>Princeton Legacy Library</b> uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
9781400885985 Aerodynamics of Turbines and Compressors. (HSA-1), Volume 1 High Speed Aerodynamics and Jet Propulsion,Princeton Legacy Library Engines & power transmission, Aerodynamics 1964 646 Volume X of the <i>High Speed Aerodynamics and Jet Propulsion</i> series. Contents include: Theory of Two-Dimensional Flow through Cascades; Three-Dimensional Flow in Turbomachines; Experimental Techniques; Flow in Cascades; The Axial Compressor Stage; The Supersonic Compressor; Aerodynamic Design of Axial Flow Turbines; The Radial Turbine; The Centrifugal Compressor; Intermittent Flow Effects.

Originally published in 1964.

The <b>Princeton Legacy Library</b> uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
9781400875375 Theory of Laminar Flows. (HSA-4), Volume 4   High Speed Aerodynamics and Jet Propulsion,Princeton Legacy Library Physics 1964 892 Volume IV of the <i>High Speed Aerodynamics and Jet Propulsion</i> series. Contents of this volume include: Introduction, by F.K. Moore; Laminar Flow Theory, by P.A. Lagerstrom; Three-Dimensional Laminar Boundary Layers, by A. Mager; Theory of Time-Dependent Laminar Flows, by Nicholas Rott; Hypersonic Boundary Layer Theory, by F.K. Moore; Laminar Flows with Body Forces, by Simon Ostrach; Stability of Laminar Flows, by S.F. Shen.

Originally published in 1964.

The <b>Princeton Legacy Library</b> uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
9780691186948 The Enjoyment of Math Rademacher, Hans,Toeplitz, Otto Princeton Science Library Mathematical foundations, History of mathematics, Philosophy of mathematics 1967 What is so special about the number 30? How many colors are needed to color a map? Do the prime numbers go on forever? Are there more whole numbers than even numbers? These and other mathematical puzzles are explored in this delightful book by two eminent mathematicians. Requiring no more background than plane geometry and elementary algebra, this book leads the reader into some of the most fundamental ideas of mathematics, the ideas that make the subject exciting and interesting. Explaining clearly how each problem has arisen and, in some cases, resolved, Hans Rademacher and Otto Toeplitz's deep curiosity for the subject and their outstanding pedagogical talents shine through.
9781400855988 Aircraft Dynamics and Automatic Control McRuer, Duane T.,Graham, Dunstan,Ashkenas, Irving Princeton Legacy Library Aerospace & aviation technology, Astronautics 1974 810 Aeronautical engineers concerned with the analysis of aircraft dynamics and the synthesis of aircraft flight control systems will find an indispensable tool in this analytical treatment of the subject. Approaching these two fields with the conviction that an understanding of either one can illuminate the other, the authors have summarized selected, interconnected techniques that facilitate a high level of insight into the essence of complex systems problems. These techniques are suitable for establishing nominal system designs, for forecasting off-nominal problems, and for diagnosing the root causes of problems that almost inevitably occur in the design process. A complete and self-contained work, the text discusses the early history of aircraft dynamics and control, mathematical models of linear system elements, feedback system analysis, vehicle equations of motion, longitudinal and lateral dynamics, and elementary longitudinal and lateral feedback control. The discussion concludes with such topics as the system design process, inputs and system performance assessment, and multi-loop flight control systems.

Originally published in 1974.

The <b>Princeton Legacy Library</b> uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
9781400885930 Petroleum and Global Tectonics Princeton Legacy Library Environmental management 1975 366 The recent prominence of global tectonics has been as spectacular as it has been promissory of ramifications throughout established geological thought. The academic concepts of tectonics --continental drift, sea-floor spread, the definition of the major tectonic plates of the world, to cite only a few--are now regarded as essentially valid. Suggesting, as they do, a re-examination of many geological tenets, one may ask what bearing tectonics have on the formation and accumulation of petroleum. This volume addresses that question and presents the implications of the theoretical advances on the essential quest for petroleum and its by-products.

Originally published in 1975.

The <b>Princeton Legacy Library</b> uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
9781400868490 Evolution of North America King, Philip Burke Princeton Legacy Library Earth sciences, North America 1977 216 In revising his now classic work on the geology of North America, Philip B. King has devoted attention both to the new concepts of global tectonics and to new facts obtained from fieldwork in recent years. From its overview of the natural history of continents, to the sections describing the characteristics and history of each region, this remains a fundamental text on continental geology.

Originally published in 1977.

The <b>Princeton Legacy Library</b> uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
9780691186986 The Evolution of Culture in Animals Bonner, John Tyler Princeton Science Library Evolution 1980 Animals do have culture, maintains this delightfully illustrated and provocative book, which cites a number of fascinating instances of animal communication and learning. John Bonner traces the origins of culture back to the early biological evolution of animals and provides examples of five categories of behavior leading to nonhuman culture: physical dexterity, relations with other species, auditory communication within a species, geographic locations, and inventions or innovations. Defining culture as the transmission of information by behavioral rather than genetical means, he demonstrates the continuum between the traits we find in animals and those we often consider uniquely human.
9780691217888 Surprises in Theoretical Physics Peierls, Rudolf Princeton Series in Physics Chemical physics,  Cryogenics,  Applied physics,  Statistical physics,  Particle & high-energy physics,  Physics of gases 1980 176 Problems in theoretical physics often lead to paradoxical answers; yet closer reasoning and a more complete analysis invariably lead to the resolution of the paradox and to a deeper understanding of the physics involved. Drawing primarily from his own experience and that of his collaborators, Sir Rudolf Peierls selects examples of such "surprises" from a wide range of physical theory, from quantum mechanical scattering theory to the theory of relativity, from irreversibility in statistical mechanics to the behavior of electrons in solids. By studying such surprises and learning what kind of possibilities to look for, he suggests, scientists may be able to avoid errors in future problems.

  In some cases the surprise is that the outcome of a calculation is contrary to what physical intuition seems to demand. In other instances an approximation that looks convincing turns out to be unjustified, or one that looks unreasonable turns out to be adequate. Professor Peierls does not suggest, however, that theoretical physics is a hazardous game in which one can never foresee the surprises a detailed calculation might reveal. Rather, he contends, all the surprises discussed have rational explanations, most of which are very simple, at least in principle.

  This book is based on the author's lectures at the University of Washington in the spring of 1977 and at the <i>Institut de Physique Nucleaire, University de Paris-Sud, Orsay,</i> during the winter of 1977-1978.
9780691206714 The Large-Scale Structure of the Universe Peebles, P. J. E. Princeton Series in Physics Astrophysics,  Theoretical & mathematical astronomy 1981 448 <b>The classic account of the structure and evolution of the early universe from Nobel Prize–winning physicist P. J. E. Peebles</b>

An instant landmark on its publication, <i>The Large-Scale Structure of the Universe</i> remains the essential introduction to this vital area of research. Written by one of the world's most esteemed theoretical cosmologists, it provides an invaluable historical introduction to the subject, and an enduring overview of key methods, statistical measures, and techniques for dealing with cosmic evolution. With characteristic clarity and insight, P. J. E. Peebles focuses on the largest known structures—galaxy clusters—weighing the empirical evidence of the nature of clustering and the theories of how it evolves in an expanding universe. A must-have reference for students and researchers alike, this edition of <i>The Large-Scale Structure of the Universe</i> introduces a new generation of readers to a classic text in modern cosmology.
9780691212937 Supersymmetry and Supergravity Wess, Julius,Bagger, Jonathan Princeton Series in Physics Physics of gases, Chemical physics, Applied physics, Statistical physics, Cryogenics, Low temperature physics 1983 272 This widely acclaimed introduction to N = 1 supersymmetry and supergravity is aimed at readers familiar with relativistic quantum field theory who wish to learn about the supersymmetry algebra. In this new volume Supersymmetry and Supergravity has been greatly expanded to include a detailed derivation of the most general coupling of super-symmetric gauge theory to supergravity. The final result is the starting point for phenomenological studies of supersymmetric theories. The book is distinguished by its pedagogical approach to supersymmetry. It develops several topics in advanced field theory as the need arises. It emphasizes the logical coherence of the subject and should appeal to physicists whose interests range from the mathematical to the phenomenological. In praise of the first edition: "A beautiful exposition of the original ideas of Wess and Zumino in formulating N = 1 supersymmetry and supergravity theories, couched in the language of superfields introduced by Strathdee and the reviewer.... [All] serious students of particle physics would do well to acquire a copy."--Abdus Salam, Nature "An excellent introduction to this exciting area of theoretical physics."--C. J. Isham, Physics Bulletin
9781400853335 Kinetics of Heterogeneous Catalytic Reactions Boudart, Michel,Djega-Mariadassou, G. Princeton Legacy Library,Physical Chemistry: Science and Engineering Catalysis, Physics 1984 242 This book is a critical account of the principles of the kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic reactions in the light of recent developments in surface science and catalysis science.

Originally published in 1984.

The <b>Princeton Legacy Library</b> uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
9780691218021 Quantum Fluctuations Nelson, Edward Princeton Series in Physics Quantum physics (quantum mechanics & quantum field theory) 1985 160 Stochastic mechanics is a description of quantum phenomena in classical probabilistic terms. This work contains a detailed account of the kinematics of diffusion processes, including diffusions on curved manifolds which are necessary for the treatment of spin in stochastic mechanics. The dynamical equations of the theory are derived from a variational principle, and interference, the asymptotics of free motion, bound states, statistics, and spin are described in classical terms.

  In addition to developing the formal mathematical aspects of the theory, the book contains discussion of possible physical causes of quantum fluctuations in terms of an interaction with a background field. The author gives a critical analysis of stochastic mechanics as a candidate for a realistic theory of physical processes, discussing measurement, local causality in the sense of Bell, and the failure of the theory in its present form to satisfy locality.
9781400847464 QED Feynman, Richard P. Princeton Science Library Popular science, Quantum physics (quantum mechanics & quantum field theory) 1988 192 Celebrated for his brilliantly quirky insights into the physical world, Nobel laureate Richard Feynman also possessed an extraordinary talent for explaining difficult concepts to the general public. Here Feynman provides a classic and definitive introduction to QED (namely, quantum electrodynamics), that part of quantum field theory describing the interactions of light with charged particles. Using everyday language, spatial concepts, visualizations, and his renowned "Feynman diagrams" instead of advanced mathematics, Feynman clearly and humorously communicates both the substance and spirit of QED to the layperson. A. Zee's introduction places Feynman’s book and his seminal contribution to QED in historical context and further highlights Feynman’s uniquely appealing and illuminating style.
9781400860777 Wing Theory Jones, Robert Thomas Princeton Legacy Library Aerospace & aviation technology 1990 228 Originator of many of the theories used in modern wing design, Robert T. Jones surveys the aerodynamics of wings from the early theories of lift to modern theoretical developments. This work covers the behavior of wings at both low and high speeds, including the range from very low Reynolds numbers to the determination of minimum drag at supersonic speed. Emphasizing analytical techniques, Wing Theory provides invaluable physical principles and insights for advanced students, professors, and aeronautical engineers, as well as for scientists involved in computational approaches to the subject. This book is based on over forty years of theoretical and practical work performed by the author and other leading researchers in the field of aerodynamics.

Originally published in 1990.

The <b>Princeton Legacy Library</b> uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
9781400861521 Maxwell's Demon Princeton Legacy Library,Princeton Series in Physics Physics 1990 362 About 120 years ago, James Clerk Maxwell introduced his now legendary hypothetical "demon" as a challenge to the integrity of the second law of thermodynamics. Fascination with the demon persisted throughout the development of statistical and quantum physics, information theory, and computer science--and linkages have been established between Maxwell's demon and each of these disciplines. The demon's seductive quality makes it appealing to physical scientists, engineers, computer scientists, biologists, psychologists, and historians and philosophers of science. Until now its important source material has been scattered throughout diverse journals.

This book brings under one cover twenty-five reprints, including seminal works by Maxwell and William Thomson; historical reviews by Martin Klein, Edward Daub, and Peter Heimann; information theoretic contributions by Leo Szilard, Leon Brillouin, Dennis Gabor, and Jerome Rothstein; and innovations by Rolf Landauer and Charles Bennett illustrating linkages with the limits of computation. An introductory chapter summarizes the demon's life, from Maxwell's illustration of the second law's statistical nature to the most recent "exorcism" of the demon based on a need periodically to erase its memory. An annotated chronological bibliography is included.

Originally published in 1990.

The <b>Princeton Legacy Library</b> uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
9781400866649 Flatland Abbott, Edwin Abbott Princeton Science Library Popular mathematics, Mathematics, Science fiction, Geometry, Topology 1991 104 In 1884, Edwin Abbott Abbott wrote a mathematical adventure set in a two-dimensional plane world, populated by a hierarchical society of regular geometrical figures-who think and speak and have all too human emotions. Since then <i>Flatland</i> has fascinated generations of readers, becoming a perennial science-fiction favorite. By imagining the contact of beings from different dimensions, the author fully exploited the power of the analogy between the limitations of humans and those of his two-dimensional characters.

  A first-rate fictional guide to the concept of multiple dimensions of space, the book will also appeal to those who are interested in computer graphics. This field, which literally makes higher dimensions seeable, has aroused a new interest in visualization. We can now manipulate objects in four dimensions and observe their three-dimensional slices tumbling on the computer screen. But how do we interpret these images? In his introduction, Thomas Banchoff points out that there is no better way to begin exploring the problem of understanding higher-dimensional slicing phenomena than reading this classic novel of the Victorian era.
9781400862849 Theory of CMOS Digital Circuits and Circuit Failures Shoji, Masakazu Princeton Legacy Library Circuits & components 1992 590 CMOS chips are becoming increasingly important in computer circuitry. They have been widely used during the past decade, and they will continue to grow in popularity in those application areas that demand high performance. Challenging the prevailing opinion that circuit simulation can reveal all problems in CMOS circuits, Masakazu Shoji maintains that simulation cannot completely remove the often costly errors that occur in circuit design. To address the failure modes of these circuits more fully, he presents a new approach to CMOS circuit design based on his systematizing of circuit design error and his unique theory of CMOS digital circuit operation. In analyzing CMOS digital circuits, the author focuses not on effects originating from the characteristics of the device (MOSFET) but on those arising from their connection. This emphasis allows him to formulate a powerful but ultimately simple theory explaining the effects of connectivity by using a concept of the states of the circuits, called microstates. Shoji introduces microstate sequence diagrams that describe the state changes (or the circuit connectivity changes), and he uses his microstate theory to analyze many of the conventional CMOS digital circuits. These analyses are practically all in closed-form, and they provide easy physical interpretation of the circuit's working mechanisms, the parametric dependence of performance, and the circuit's failure modes.

Originally published in 1992.

The <b>Princeton Legacy Library</b> uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
9780691214320 More Surprises in Theoretical Physics Peierls, Rudolf Princeton Series in Physics Particle & high-energy physics, Chemical physics, Cryogenics, Applied physics, Statistical physics, Physics of gases 1992 126 Like its predecessor, this book by the renowned physicist Sir Rudolf Peierls draws from many diverse fields of theoretical physics to present problems in which the answer differs from what our intuition had led us to expect. In some cases an apparently convincing approximation turns out to be misleading; in others a seemingly unmanageable problem turns out to have a simple answer. Peierls's intention, however, is not to treat theoretical physics as an unpredictable game in which such surprises happen at random. Instead he shows how in each case careful thought could have prepared us for the outcome. Peierls has chosen mainly problems from his own experience or that of his collaborators, often showing how classic problems can lend themselves to new insights. His book is aimed at both graduate students and their teachers. Praise for Surprises in Theoretical Physics: "A beautiful piece of stimulating scholarship and a delight to read. Physicists of all kinds will learn a great deal from it."--R. J. Blin-Stoyle, Contemporary Physics
9780691206721 Principles of Physical Cosmology Peebles, P. J. E. Princeton Series in Physics Theoretical & mathematical astronomy, Astrophysics 1993 774 The classic introduction to physical cosmology from Nobel Prize–winning physicist P. J. E. Peebles

<i>Principles of Physical Cosmology</i> is the essential introduction to this critical area of modern physics, written by a leading pioneer who has shaped the course of the field for decades. P. J. E. Peebles provides an authoritative overview of the field, showing how observation has combined with theory to establish the science of physical cosmology. He presents the elements of physical cosmology, including the history of the discovery of the expanding universe; surveys the cosmological tests that measure the geometry of space-time, with a discussion of general relativity as the basis for these tests; and reviews the origin of galaxies and the large-scale structure of the universe. Now featuring Peebles's 2019 Nobel lecture, <i>Principles of Physical Cosmology</i> remains an indispensable reference for students and researchers alike.
9781400880034 Control of Spacecraft and Aircraft Bryson, Arthur E.   Aerospace & aviation technology, Astronautics 1994 408 Here a leading researcher provides a comprehensive treatment of the design of automatic control logic for spacecraft and aircraft. In this book Arthur Bryson describes the linear-quadratic-regulator (LQR) method of feedback control synthesis, which coordinates multiple controls, producing graceful maneuvers comparable to those of an expert pilot.

 The first half of the work is about attitude control of rigid and flexible spacecraft using momentum wheels, spin, fixed thrusters, and gimbaled engines. Guidance for nearly circular orbits is discussed. The second half is about aircraft attitude and flight path control. This section discusses autopilot designs for cruise, climb-descent, coordinated turns, and automatic landing. One chapter deals with controlling helicopters near hover, and another offers an introduction to the stabilization of aeroelastic instabilities. Throughout the book there is a strong emphasis on the mathematical modeling necessary for designing a good feedback control system. The appendixes summarize analysis of linear dynamic systems, synthesis of analog and digital feedback control, simulation, and modeling of flexible vehicles.
9781400832347 <i>e:</i> The Story of a Number Maor, Eli Princeton Science Library History of mathematics, Mathematical foundations, Popular science 1994 248 The interest earned on a bank account, the arrangement of seeds in a sunflower, and the shape of the Gateway Arch in St. Louis are all intimately connected with the mysterious number <i>e</i>. In this informal and engaging history, Eli Maor portrays the curious characters and the elegant mathematics that lie behind the number. Designed for a reader with only a modest mathematical background, this biography brings out the central importance of <i>e</i> to mathematics and illuminates a golden era in the age of science.
9780691187433 The Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics Omnès, Roland Princeton Series in Physics History of science 1994   The interpretation of quantum mechanics has been controversial since the introduction of quantum theory in the 1920s. Although the Copenhagen interpretation is commonly accepted, its usual formulation suffers from some serious drawbacks. Based mainly on Bohr's concepts, the formulation assumes an independent and essential validity of classical concepts running in parallel with quantum ones, and leaves open the possibility of their ultimate conflict. In this book, Roland Omnès examines a number of recent advances, which, combined, lead to a consistent revision of the Copenhagen interpretation. His aim is to show how this interpretation can fit all present experiments, to weed out unnecessary or questionable assumptions, and to assess the domain of validity where the older statements apply.

 Drawing on the new contributions, <i>The Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics</i> offers a complete and self-contained treatment of interpretation (in nonrelativistic physics) in a manner accessible to both physicists and students. Although some "hard" results are included, the concepts and mathematical developments are maintained at an undergraduate level. This book enables readers to check every step, apply the techniques to new problems, and make sure that no paradox or obscurity can arise in the theory. In the conclusion, the author discusses various philosophical implications pertinent to the study of quantum mechanics.
9780691215051 Polyominoes Golomb, Solomon W. Princeton Science Library Popular science 1994 198 Inspiring popular video games like Tetris while contributing to the study of combinatorial geometry and tiling theory, polyominoes have continued to spark interest ever since their inventor, Solomon Golomb, introduced them to puzzle enthusiasts several decades ago. In this fully revised and expanded edition of his landmark book, the author takes a new generation of readers on a mathematical journey into the world of the deceptively simple polyomino. Golomb incorporates important, recent developments, and poses problems, inviting the reader to play with and develop an understanding of the extraordinary properties of polyominoes.
9780691219394 Designing the Molecular World Ball, Philip Princeton Science Library Chemistry 1994 384 Some of the most exciting scientific developments in recent years have come not from theoretical physicists, astronomers, or molecular biologists but instead from the chemistry lab. Chemists have created superconducting ceramics for brain scanners, designed liquid crystal flat screens for televisions and watch displays, and made fabrics that change color while you wear them. They have fashioned metals from plastics, drugs from crude oil, and have pinpointed the chemical pollutants affecting our atmosphere and are now searching for remedies for the imperiled planet. Philip Ball, an editor for the prestigious magazine <i>Nature,</i> lets the lay reader into the world of modern chemistry. Here, for example, chemists find new uses for the improbable buckminsterfullerene molecules--60-atom carbon soccerballs, dubbed "buckyballs"--which seem to have applications for everything from lubrication to medicine to electronics.

 The book is not intended as an introduction to chemistry, but as an accessible survey of recent developments throughout many of the major fields allied with chemistry: from research in traditional areas such as crystallography and spectroscopy to entirely new fields of study such as molecular electronics, artificial enzymes, and "smart" polymer gels. Ball's grand tour along the leading edge of scientific discovery will appeal to all curious readers, with or without any scientific training, to chemistry students looking for future careers, and to practicing chemical researchers looking for information on other specialties within their discipline.
9780691190198 Gravitation and Inertia Ciufolini, Ignazio,Wheeler, John Archibald Princeton Series in Physics Particle & high-energy physics,  Cryogenics,  Chemical physics, Applied physics, Statistical physics, Physics of gases 1995 Einstein's standard and battle-tested geometric theory of gravity--spacetime tells mass how to move and mass tells spacetime how to curve--is expounded in this book by Ignazio Ciufolini and John Wheeler. They give special attention to the theory's observational checks and to two of its consequences: the predicted existence of gravitomagnetism and the origin of inertia (local inertial frames) in Einstein's general relativity: inertia <i>here</i> arises from mass <i>there</i>.

 The authors explain the modern understanding of the link between gravitation and inertia in Einstein's theory, from the origin of inertia in some cosmological models of the universe, to the interpretation of the initial value formulation of Einstein's standard geometrodynamics; and from the devices and the methods used to determine the local inertial frames of reference, to the experiments used to detect and measure the "dragging of inertial frames of reference." In this book, Ciufolini and Wheeler emphasize present, past, and proposed tests of gravitational interaction, metric theories, and general relativity. They describe the numerous confirmations of the foundations of geometrodynamics and some proposed experiments, including space missions, to test some of its fundamental predictions--in particular gravitomagnetic field or "dragging of inertial frames" and gravitational waves.
9781400834747 The Nature of Space and Time Hawking, Stephen,Penrose, Roger Isaac Newton Institute Series of Lectures,Princeton Science Library Quantum physics (quantum mechanics & quantum field theory), Relativity physics, Cosmology & the universe 1996 160 From two of the world's great physicists—Stephen Hawking and Nobel laureate Roger Penrose a lively debate about the nature of space and time
Einstein said that the most incomprehensible thing about the universe is that it is comprehensible. But was he right? Can the quantum theory of fields and Einstein's general theory of relativity, the two most accurate and successful theories in all of physics, be united into a single quantum theory of gravity? Can quantum and cosmos ever be combined? In <i>The Nature of Space and Time</i>, two of the world’s most famous physicists—Stephen Hawking (<i>A Brief History of Time</i>) and Roger Penrose (<i>The Road to Reality</i>)—debate these questions.

The authors outline how their positions have further diverged on a number of key issues, including the spatial geometry of the universe, inflationary versus cyclic theories of the cosmos, and the black-hole information-loss paradox. Though much progress has been made, Hawking and Penrose stress that physicists still have further to go in their quest for a quantum theory of gravity.
9780691212906 The Mathematician's Mind Hadamard, Jacques Princeton Science Library History of mathematics, Mathematical foundations, Philosophy of mathematics 1997 168 Fifty years ago when Jacques Hadamard set out to explore how mathematicians invent new ideas, he considered the creative experiences of some of the greatest thinkers of his generation, such as George Polya, Claude Lévi-Strauss, and Albert Einstein. It appeared that inspiration could strike anytime, particularly after an individual had worked hard on a problem for days and then turned attention to another activity. In exploring this phenomenon, Hadamard produced one of the most famous and cogent cases for the existence of unconscious mental processes in mathematical invention and other forms of creativity. Written before the explosion of research in computers and cognitive science, his book, originally titled <i>The Psychology of Invention in the Mathematical Field</i>, remains an important tool for exploring the increasingly complex problem of mental life.

 The roots of creativity for Hadamard lie not in consciousness, but in the long unconscious work of incubation, and in the unconscious aesthetic selection of ideas that thereby pass into consciousness. His discussion of this process comprises a wide range of topics, including the use of mental images or symbols, visualized or auditory words, "meaningless" words, logic, and intuition. Among the important documents collected is a letter from Albert Einstein analyzing his own mechanism of thought.
9780691215112 The Dawning of Gauge Theory O'Raifeartaigh, Lochlainn Princeton Series in Physics Low temperature physics, Chemical physics, Applied physics, Cryogenics, Statistical physics, Physics of gases 1997 272 During the course of this century, gauge invariance has slowly emerged from being an incidental symmetry of electromagnetism to being a fundamental geometrical principle underlying the four known fundamental physical interactions. The development has been in two stages. In the first stage (1916-1956) the geometrical significance of gauge-invariance gradually came to be appreciated and the original abelian gauge-invariance of electromagnetism was generalized to non-abelian gauge invariance. In the second stage (1960-1975) it was found that, contrary to first appearances, the non-abelian gauge-theories provided exactly the framework that was needed to describe the nuclear interactions (both weak and strong) and thus provided a universal framework for describing all known fundamental interactions. In this work, Lochlainn O'Raifeartaigh describes the former phase.

 O'Raifeartaigh first illustrates how gravitational theory and quantum mechanics played crucial roles in the reassessment of gauge theory as a geometric principle and as a framework for describing both electromagnetism and gravitation. He then describes how the abelian electromagnetic gauge-theory was generalized to its present non-abelian form. The development is illustrated by including a selection of relevant articles, many of them appearing here for the first time in English, notably by Weyl, Schrodinger, Klein, and London in the pre-war years, and by Pauli, Shaw, Yang-Mills, and Utiyama after the war. The articles illustrate that the reassessment of gauge-theory, due in a large measure to Weyl, constituted a major philosophical as well as technical advance.
9781400866861 Eye and Brain Gregory, Richard L. Princeton Science Library Optical physics, Neurosciences, Psychology, Hobbies,  quizzes & games 1998 288 Since the publication of the first edition in 1966, <i>Eye and Brain</i> has established itself worldwide as an essential introduction to the basic phenomena of visual perception. Richard Gregory offers clear explanations of how we see brightness, movement, color, and objects, and he explores the phenomena of visual illusions to establish principles about how perception normally works and why it sometimes fails.

Illusion continues to be a major theme in the book, which provides a comprehensive classification system. There are also sections on what babies see and how they learn to see, on motion perception, the relationship between vision and consciousness, and on the impact of new brain imaging techniques.
9781400864935 Fault-related Rocks   Princeton Legacy Library The Earth: natural history general 1998 634 This is a richly illustrated reference book that provides a unique, comprehensive, and up-to-date survey of the rocks and structures of fault and shear zones. These zones are fundamental geologic structures in the Earth's crust. Their rigorous analysis is crucial to understanding the kinematics and dynamics of the continental and oceanic crust, the nature of earthquakes, and the formation of gold and hydrocarbon deposits. To document the variety of fault-related rocks, the book presents more than six hundred photographs of structures ranging in scale from outcrop to submicroscopic. These are accompanied by detailed explanations, often including geologic maps and cross sections, contributed by over 125 geoscientists from around the world.

The book opens with an extensive introduction by Arthur W. Snoke and Jan Tullis that is itself a major contribution to the field. Fault-related rocks and their origins have long been controversial and subject to inconsistent terminology. Snoke and Tullis address these problems by presenting the currently accepted ideas in the field, focusing on deformation mechanisms and conceptual models for fault and shear zones. They define common terminology and classifications and present a list of important questions for future research. In the main, photographic part of the book, the editors divide the contributions into three broad categories, covering brittle behavior, semi-brittle behavior, and ductile behavior. Under these headings, there are contributions on dozens of subtopics with photographs from localities around the world, including several "type" areas.

The book is an unrivaled source of information about fault-related rocks and will be important reading for a broad range of earth scientists, including structural geologists, petrologists, geophysicists, and environmental specialists.

Originally published in 1998.

The <b>Princeton Legacy Library</b> uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
9781400865000 Fluid Metals Hensel, Friedrich,Warren, William W. Princeton Legacy Library,Physical Chemistry: Science and Engineering Condensed matter physics (liquid state & solid state physics) 1999 264 This is a long-needed general introduction to the physics and chemistry of the liquid-vapor phase transition of metals. Physicists and physical chemists have made great strides understanding the basic principles involved, and engineers have discovered a wide variety of new uses for fluid metals. Yet there has been no book that brings together the latest ideas and findings in the field or that bridges the conceptual gap between the condensed-matter physics relevant to a dense metallic liquid and the molecular chemistry relevant to a dilute atomic vapor. Friedrich Hensel and William Warren seek to change that here. They draw on cutting-edge research and data from carefully selected fluid-metal systems as they strive to develop a rigorous theoretical approach to predict the thermodynamic behavior of fluid metals over the entire liquid-vapor range.

This book will appeal to theoreticians interested in metal-nonmetal transitions or continuous phase transitions in general. It will also be of great value to those who need to understand the practical applications of fluid metals, for example, as a high-temperature working fluid or as a key component of semiconductor manufacturing.

Originally published in 1999.

The <b>Princeton Legacy Library</b> uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
9781400841547 Introduction to Atmospheric Chemistry Jacob, Daniel J.   Earth sciences 2000 280 Atmospheric chemistry is one of the fastest growing fields in the earth sciences. Until now, however, there has been no book designed to help students capture the essence of the subject in a brief course of study. Daniel Jacob, a leading researcher and teacher in the field, addresses that problem by presenting the first textbook on atmospheric chemistry for a one-semester course. Based on the approach he developed in his class at Harvard, Jacob introduces students in clear and concise chapters to the fundamentals as well as the latest ideas and findings in the field.

 Jacob's aim is to show students how to use basic principles of physics and chemistry to describe a complex system such as the atmosphere. He also seeks to give students an overview of the current state of research and the work that led to this point. Jacob begins with atmospheric structure, design of simple models, atmospheric transport, and the continuity equation, and continues with geochemical cycles, the greenhouse effect, aerosols, stratospheric ozone, the oxidizing power of the atmosphere, smog, and acid rain. Each chapter concludes with a problem set based on recent scientific literature. This is a novel approach to problem-set writing, and one that successfully introduces students to the prevailing issues.

 This is a major contribution to a growing area of study and will be welcomed enthusiastically by students and teachers alike.
9780691223377 Mathematics of Wave Propagation Davis, Julian L. Applied mathematics, Mathematical modelling, Maths for scientists, Maths for engineers 2000 411 Earthquakes, a plucked string, ocean waves crashing on the beach, the sound waves that allow us to recognize known voices. Waves are everywhere, and the propagation and classical properties of these apparently disparate phenomena can be described by the same mathematical methods: variational calculus, characteristics theory, and caustics. Taking a medium-by-medium approach, Julian Davis explains the mathematics needed to understand wave propagation in inviscid and viscous fluids, elastic solids, viscoelastic solids, and thermoelastic media, including hyperbolic partial differential equations and characteristics theory, which makes possible geometric solutions to nonlinear wave problems. The result is a clear and unified treatment of wave propagation that makes a diverse body of mathematics accessible to engineers, physicists, and applied mathematicians engaged in research on elasticity, aerodynamics, and fluid mechanics.

 This book will particularly appeal to those working across specializations and those who seek the truly interdisciplinary understanding necessary to fully grasp waves and their behavior. By proceeding from concrete phenomena (e.g., the Doppler effect, the motion of sinusoidal waves, energy dissipation in viscous fluids, thermal stress) rather than abstract mathematical principles, Davis also creates a one-stop reference that will be prized by students of continuum mechanics and by mathematicians needing information on the physics of waves.
9780691219530 More is Different   Princeton Series in Physics Particle & high-energy physics, Cryogenics, Chemical physics, Statistical physics, Plasma physics, Physics of gases 2001 368 This book presents articles written by leading experts surveying several major subfields in Condensed Matter Physics and related sciences. The articles are based on invited talks presented at a recent conference honoring Nobel laureate Philip W. Anderson of Princeton University, who coined the phrase "More is different" while formulating his contention that all fields of physics, indeed all of science, involve equally fundamental insights. The articles introduce and survey current research in areas that have been close to Anderson's interests. Together, they illustrate both the deep impact that Anderson has had in this multifaceted field during the past half century and the progress spawned by his insights. The contributors cover numerous topics under the umbrellas of superconductivity, superfluidity, magnetism, electron localization, strongly interacting electronic systems, heavy fermions, and disorder and frustration in glass and spin-glass systems. They also describe interdisciplinary areas such as the science of olfaction and color vision, the screening of macroions in electrolytes, scaling and renormalization in cosmology, forest fires and the spread of measles, and the investigation of "NP-complete" problems in computer science.

  The articles are authored by Philip W. Anderson, Per Bak and Kan Chen, G. Baskaran, Juan Carlos Campuzano, Paul Chaikin, John Hopfield, Bernhard Keimer, Scott Kirkpatrick and Bart Selman, Gabriel Kotliar, Patrick Lee, Yoshiteru Maeno, Marc Mezard, Douglas Osheroff et al., H. R. Ott, L. Pietronero et al., T. V. Ramakrishnan, A. Ramirez, Myriam Sarachik, T. Senthil and Matthew P. A. Fisher, B. I. Shklovskii et al., and F. Steglich et al.
9781400825103 Selfsimilar Processes Embrechts, Paul Princeton Series in Applied Mathematics Stochastics 2002 128 The modeling of stochastic dependence is fundamental for understanding random systems evolving in time. When measured through linear correlation, many of these systems exhibit a slow correlation decay--a phenomenon often referred to as long-memory or long-range dependence. An example of this is the absolute returns of equity data in finance. Selfsimilar stochastic processes (particularly fractional Brownian motion) have long been postulated as a means to model this behavior, and the concept of selfsimilarity for a stochastic process is now proving to be extraordinarily useful. Selfsimilarity translates into the equality in distribution between the process under a linear time change and the same process properly scaled in space, a simple scaling property that yields a remarkably rich theory with far-flung applications.

 After a short historical overview, this book describes the current state of knowledge about selfsimilar processes and their applications. Concepts, definitions and basic properties are emphasized, giving the reader a road map of the realm of selfsimilarity that allows for further exploration. Such topics as noncentral limit theory, long-range dependence, and operator selfsimilarity are covered alongside statistical estimation, simulation, sample path properties, and stochastic differential equations driven by selfsimilar processes. Numerous references point the reader to current applications.

 Though the text uses the mathematical language of the theory of stochastic processes, researchers and end-users from such diverse fields as mathematics, physics, biology, telecommunications, finance, econometrics, and environmental science will find it an ideal entry point for studying the already extensive theory and applications of selfsimilarity.
9781400825134 Self-Regularity Peng, Jiming,Roos, Cornelis,Terlaky, Tamás Princeton Series in Applied Mathematics Applied mathematics, Maths for engineers, Maths for scientists, Mathematical modelling 2003 208 Research on interior-point methods (IPMs) has dominated the field of mathematical programming for the last two decades. Two contrasting approaches in the analysis and implementation of IPMs are the so-called small-update and large-update methods, although, until now, there has been a notorious gap between the theory and practical performance of these two strategies. This book comes close to bridging that gap, presenting a new framework for the theory of primal-dual IPMs based on the notion of the self-regularity of a function.

 The authors deal with linear optimization, nonlinear complementarity problems, semidefinite optimization, and second-order conic optimization problems. The framework also covers large classes of linear complementarity problems and convex optimization. The algorithm considered can be interpreted as a path-following method or a potential reduction method. Starting from a primal-dual strictly feasible point, the algorithm chooses a search direction defined by some Newton-type system derived from the self-regular proximity. The iterate is then updated, with the iterates staying in a certain neighborhood of the central path until an approximate solution to the problem is found. By extensively exploring some intriguing properties of self-regular functions, the authors establish that the complexity of large-update IPMs can come arbitrarily close to the best known iteration bounds of IPMs.

 Researchers and postgraduate students in all areas of linear and nonlinear optimization will find this book an important and invaluable aid to their work.
9780691220383 When Least Is Best Nahin, Paul J. Princeton Science Library 2003 392 A mathematical journey through the most fascinating problems of extremes and how to solve them</b>
What is the best way to photograph a speeding bullet? How can lost hikers find their way out of a forest? Why does light move through glass in the least amount of time possible? <i>When Least Is Best</i> combines the mathematical history of extrema with contemporary examples to answer these intriguing questions and more. Paul Nahin shows how life often works at the extremes—with values becoming as small (or as large) as possible—and he considers how mathematicians over the centuries, including Descartes, Fermat, and Kepler, have grappled with these problems of minima and maxima. Throughout, Nahin examines entertaining conundrums, such as how to build the shortest bridge possible between two towns, how to vary speed during a race, and how to make the perfect basketball shot. Moving from medieval writings and modern calculus to the field of optimization, the engaging and witty explorations of <i>When Least Is Best</i> will delight math enthusiasts everywhere.
9781400880041 Auxiliary Signal Design for Failure Detection Campbell, Stephen L.,Nikoukhah, Ramine Princeton Series in Applied Mathematics Maths for scientists, Maths for engineers, Applied mathematics, Mathematical modelling 2004 224 Many industries, such as transportation and manufacturing, use control systems to insure that parameters such as temperature or altitude behave in a desirable way over time. For example, pilots need assurance that the plane they are flying will maintain a particular heading. An integral part of control systems is a mechanism for failure detection to insure safety and reliability.

  This book offers an alternative failure detection approach that addresses two of the fundamental problems in the safe and efficient operation of modern control systems: failure detection--deciding when a failure has occurred--and model identification--deciding which kind of failure has occurred. Much of the work in both categories has been based on statistical methods and under the assumption that a given system was monitored passively.

  Campbell and Nikoukhah's book proposes an "active" multimodel approach. It calls for applying an auxiliary signal that will affect the output so that it can be used to easily determine if there has been a failure and what type of failure it is. This auxiliary signal must be kept small, and often brief in duration, in order not to interfere with system performance and to ensure timely detection of the failure. The approach is robust and uses tools from robust control theory. Unlike some approaches, it is applicable to complex systems. The authors present the theory in a rigorous and intuitive manner and provide practical algorithms for implementation of the procedures.
9781400873258 Approximating Perfection Lebedev, Leonid P.,Cloud, Michael J. Applied mathematics, History of mathematics, Mathematical physics 2004 232 This is a book for those who enjoy thinking about how and why Nature can be described using mathematical tools. <i>Approximating Perfection</i> considers the background behind mechanics as well as the mathematical ideas that play key roles in mechanical applications.

  Concentrating on the models of applied mechanics, the book engages the reader in the types of nuts-and-bolts considerations that are normally avoided in formal engineering courses: how and why models remain imperfect, and the factors that motivated their development. The opening chapter reviews and reconsiders the basics of calculus from a fully applied point of view; subsequent chapters explore selected topics from solid mechanics, hydrodynamics, and the natural sciences.

  Emphasis is placed on the logic that underlies modeling in mechanics and the many surprising parallels that exist between seemingly diverse areas. The mathematical demands on the reader are kept to a minimum, so the book will appeal to a wide technical audience.
9780691213071 The Space Environment Tribble, Alan C.   Galaxies & stars, Astrophysics, Theoretical & mathematical astronomy, Astronomical charts & atlases, Astronomical observation: observatories,  equipment & methods, Astronomy,  space & time 2004 248 The breakup of the Space Shuttle Columbia as it reentered Earth's atmosphere on February 1, 2003, reminded the public--and NASA--of the grave risks posed to spacecraft by everything from insulating foam to space debris. Here, Alan Tribble presents a singular, up-to-date account of a wide range of less conspicuous but no less consequential environmental effects that can damage or cause poor performance of orbiting spacecraft. Conveying a wealth of insight into the nature of the space environment and how spacecraft interact with it, he covers design modifications aimed at eliminating or reducing such environmental effects as solar absorptance increases caused by self-contamination, materials erosion by atomic oxygen, electrical discharges due to spacecraft charging, degradation of electrical circuits by radiation, and bombardment by micrometeorites. This book is unique in that it bridges the gap between studies of the space environment as performed by space physicists and spacecraft design engineering as practiced by aerospace engineers.
9781400849369 When Computers Were Human Grier, David Alan Ethical & social aspects of IT, Impact of science & technology on society, History of science, History of engineering & technology 2005 424 Before Palm Pilots and iPods, PCs and laptops, the term "computer" referred to the people who did scientific calculations by hand. These workers were neither calculating geniuses nor idiot savants but knowledgeable people who, in other circumstances, might have become scientists in their own right. <i>When Computers Were Human</i> represents the first in-depth account of this little-known, 200-year epoch in the history of science and technology.

  Beginning with the story of his own grandmother, who was trained as a human computer, David Alan Grier provides a poignant introduction to the wider world of women and men who did the hard computational labor of science. His grandmother's casual remark, "I wish I'd used my calculus," hinted at a career deferred and an education forgotten, a secret life unappreciated; like many highly educated women of her generation, she studied to become a human computer because nothing else would offer her a place in the scientific world.

  The book begins with the return of Halley's comet in 1758 and the effort of three French astronomers to compute its orbit. It ends four cycles later, with a UNIVAC electronic computer projecting the 1986 orbit. In between, Grier tells us about the surveyors of the French Revolution, describes the calculating machines of Charles Babbage, and guides the reader through the Great Depression to marvel at the giant computing room of the Works Progress Administration.

 <i>When Computers Were Human</i> is the sad but lyrical story of workers who gladly did the hard labor of research calculation in the hope that they might be part of the scientific community. In the end, they were rewarded by a new electronic machine that took the place and the name of those who were, once, the computers.
9781400826971 Thermodynamics Haddad, Wassim M.,Chellaboina, VijaySekhar,Nersesov, Sergey G. Princeton Series in Applied Mathematics Thermodynamics & heat 2005 200 This book places thermodynamics on a system-theoretic foundation so as to harmonize it with classical mechanics. Using the highest standards of exposition and rigor, the authors develop a novel formulation of thermodynamics that can be viewed as a moderate-sized system theory as compared to statistical thermodynamics. This middle-ground theory involves deterministic large-scale dynamical system models that bridge the gap between classical and statistical thermodynamics.

 The authors' theory is motivated by the fact that a discipline as cardinal as thermodynamics--entrusted with some of the most perplexing secrets of our universe--demands far more than physical mathematics as its underpinning. Even though many great physicists, such as Archimedes, Newton, and Lagrange, have humbled us with their mathematically seamless eurekas over the centuries, this book suggests that a great many physicists and engineers who have developed the theory of thermodynamics seem to have forgotten that mathematics, when used rigorously, is the irrefutable pathway to truth.

 This book uses system theoretic ideas to bring coherence, clarity, and precision to an extremely important and poorly understood classical area of science.
9781400829361 Optimization Brinkhuis, Jan,Tikhomirov, Vladimir Princeton Series in Applied Mathematics Optimization 2006 680 This self-contained textbook is an informal introduction to optimization through the use of numerous illustrations and applications. The focus is on analytically solving optimization problems with a finite number of continuous variables. In addition, the authors provide introductions to classical and modern numerical methods of optimization and to dynamic optimization.

 The book's overarching point is that most problems may be solved by the direct application of the theorems of Fermat, Lagrange, and Weierstrass. The authors show how the intuition for each of the theoretical results can be supported by simple geometric figures. They include numerous applications through the use of varied classical and practical problems. Even experts may find some of these applications truly surprising.

 A basic mathematical knowledge is sufficient to understand the topics covered in this book. More advanced readers, even experts, will be surprised to see how all main results can be grounded on the Fermat-Lagrange theorem. The book can be used for courses on continuous optimization, from introductory to advanced, for any field for which optimization is relevant.
9781400865239 Max Plus at Work Heidergott, Bernd,Olsder, Geert Jan,van der Woude, Jacob Princeton Series in Applied Mathematics Algebra 2006 224 Trains pull into a railroad station and must wait for each other before leaving again in order to let passengers change trains. How do mathematicians then calculate a railroad timetable that accurately reflects their comings and goings? One approach is to use max-plus algebra, a framework used to model Discrete Event Systems, which are well suited to describe the ordering and timing of events. This is the first textbook on max-plus algebra, providing a concise and self-contained introduction to the topic.

 Applications of max-plus algebra abound in the world around us. Traffic systems, computer communication systems, production lines, and flows in networks are all based on discrete even systems, and thus can be conveniently described and analyzed by means of max-plus algebra.

 The book consists of an introduction and thirteen chapters in three parts. Part One explores the introduction of max-plus algebra and of system descriptions based upon it. Part Two deals with a real application, namely the design of timetables for railway networks. Part Three examines various extensions, such as stochastic systems and min-max-plus systems. The text is suitable for last-year undergraduates in mathematics, and each chapter provides exercises, notes, and a reference section.
9781400865246 Impulsive and Hybrid Dynamical Systems Haddad, Wassim M.,Chellaboina, VijaySekhar,Nersesov, Sergey G. Princeton Series in Applied Mathematics Applied mathematics, Thermodynamics & heat, Automatic control engineering, Statistical physics 2006 496 This book develops a general analysis and synthesis framework for impulsive and hybrid dynamical systems. Such a framework is imperative for modern complex engineering systems that involve interacting continuous-time and discrete-time dynamics with multiple modes of operation that place stringent demands on controller design and require implementation of increasing complexity--whether advanced high-performance tactical fighter aircraft and space vehicles, variable-cycle gas turbine engines, or air and ground transportation systems.

 <i>Impulsive and Hybrid Dynamical Systems</i> goes beyond similar treatments by developing invariant set stability theorems, partial stability, Lagrange stability, boundedness, ultimate boundedness, dissipativity theory, vector dissipativity theory, energy-based hybrid control, optimal control, disturbance rejection control, and robust control for nonlinear impulsive and hybrid dynamical systems. A major contribution to mathematical system theory and control system theory, this book is written from a system-theoretic point of view with the highest standards of exposition and rigor. It is intended for graduate students, researchers, and practitioners of engineering and applied mathematics as well as computer scientists, physicists, and other scientists who seek a fundamental understanding of the rich dynamical behavior of impulsive and hybrid dynamical systems.
9780691215846 Electromagnetic Processes Gould, Robert J. Princeton Series in Astrophysics Electricity,  electromagnetism & magnetism, Astrophysics 2006 312 This book provides an understanding of the theoretical foundations for the calculation of electromagnetic processes. Photon production processes are particularly important in astrophysics, since almost all of our knowledge of distant astronomical objects comes from the detection of radiation from these sources. Further, the conditions therein are extremely varied and a wide variety of naturally occurring electromagnetic phenomena can be described by limiting forms of the basic theory.

 The first chapter reviews some basic principles that are the underpinnings for a general description of electromagnetic phenomena, such as special relativity and, especially, relativistic covariance. Classical and quantum electrodynamics (QED) are then formulated in the next two chapters, followed by applications to three basic processes (Coulomb scattering, Compton scattering, and bremsstrahlung). These processes are related to other phenomena, such as pair production, and the comparisons are discussed.

 A unique feature of the book is its thorough discussion of the nonrelativistic limit of QED, which is simpler than the relativistic theory in its formulation and applications. The methods of the relativistic theory are introduced and applied through the use of notions of covariance, to provide a shorter path to the more general theory. The book will be useful for graduate students working in astrophysics and in certain areas of particle physics.
9781400849123 Power, Speed, and Form Billington, David P.,Billington Jr., David Engineering: general, Popular science, History of science 2007 296
 <i>Power, Speed, and Form</i> is the first accessible account of the engineering behind eight breakthrough innovations that transformed American life from 1876 to 1939--the telephone, electric power, oil refining, the automobile, the airplane, radio, the long-span steel bridge, and building with reinforced concrete. Beginning with Thomas Edison's system to generate and distribute electric power, the authors explain the Bell telephone, the oil refining processes of William Burton and Eugene Houdry, Henry Ford's Model T car and the response by General Motors, the Wright brothers' airplane, radio innovations from Marconi to Armstrong, Othmar Ammann's George Washington Bridge, the reinforced concrete structures of John Eastwood and Anton Tedesko, and in the 1930s, the Chrysler Airflow car and the Douglas DC-3 airplane.

  These innovations used simple numerical ideas, which the Billingtons integrate with short narrative accounts of each breakthrough--a unique and effective way to introduce engineering and how engineers think. The book shows how the best engineering exemplifies efficiency, economy and, where possible, elegance. With <i>Power, Speed, and Form</i>, educators, first-year engineering students, liberal arts students, and general readers now have, for the first time in one volume, an accessible and readable history of engineering achievements that were vital to America's development and that are still the foundations of modern life.
9781400827787 Positive Definite Matrices Bhatia, Rajendra Princeton Series in Applied Mathematics Functional analysis & transforms, Applied mathematics, Calculus & mathematical analysis, Differential & Riemannian geometry 2007 240 This book represents the first synthesis of the considerable body of new research into positive definite matrices. These matrices play the same role in noncommutative analysis as positive real numbers do in classical analysis. They have theoretical and computational uses across a broad spectrum of disciplines, including calculus, electrical engineering, statistics, physics, numerical analysis, quantum information theory, and geometry. Through detailed explanations and an authoritative and inspiring writing style, Rajendra Bhatia carefully develops general techniques that have wide applications in the study of such matrices.

 Bhatia introduces several key topics in functional analysis, operator theory, harmonic analysis, and differential geometry--all built around the central theme of positive definite matrices. He discusses positive and completely positive linear maps, and presents major theorems with simple and direct proofs. He examines matrix means and their applications, and shows how to use positive definite functions to derive operator inequalities that he and others proved in recent years. He guides the reader through the differential geometry of the manifold of positive definite matrices, and explains recent work on the geometric mean of several matrices.

 <i>Positive Definite Matrices</i> is an informative and useful reference book for mathematicians and other researchers and practitioners. The numerous exercises and notes at the end of each chapter also make it the ideal textbook for graduate-level courses.
9781400841103 The Traveling Salesman Problem Applegate, David L.,Bixby, Robert E.,Chvátal, Vašek,Cook, William J. Princeton Series in Applied Mathematics Mathematical theory of computation, Applied mathematics 2007 608 This book presents the latest findings on one of the most intensely investigated subjects in computational mathematics--the traveling salesman problem. It sounds simple enough: given a set of cities and the cost of travel between each pair of them, the problem challenges you to find the cheapest route by which to visit all the cities and return home to where you began. Though seemingly modest, this exercise has inspired studies by mathematicians, chemists, and physicists. Teachers use it in the classroom. It has practical applications in genetics, telecommunications, and neuroscience.

 The authors of this book are the same pioneers who for nearly two decades have led the investigation into the traveling salesman problem. They have derived solutions to almost eighty-six thousand cities, yet a general solution to the problem has yet to be discovered. Here they describe the method and computer code they used to solve a broad range of large-scale problems, and along the way they demonstrate the interplay of applied mathematics with increasingly powerful computing platforms. They also give the fascinating history of the problem--how it developed, and why it continues to intrigue us.
9781400827886 The Faces of Terrorism Smelser, Neil J. Science Essentials Terrorism,  armed struggle, European history, Military history, Sociology & anthropology 2007 288 Terrorism is the most clear and present danger we confront today, yet no phenomenon is more poorly understood by policymakers, the media, and the general public. <i>The Faces of Terrorism</i> is the first serious interdisciplinary examination of terrorism in all its facets. What gives rise to it, who are its proponents and how do they think, and how--and why--does it work?

  Neil Smelser begins by tackling the fundamental problem of defining what exactly terrorism is. He shows why a precise definition has eluded us until now, and he proposes one that takes into account the full complexities of this unconventional and politically charged brand of violence. He explores the root causes and conditions of terrorism, and examines the ideologies that inspire and fuel it throughout the world. Smelser looks closely at the terrorists themselves--their recruitment, their motivations, the groups they form, their intended audiences, and their uses of the media in pursuing their agendas. He studies the target societies as well, unraveling the complicated social and psychological impacts of having to cope with the ever-present threat of a terrorist strike--and responding when one occurs. He explains what it means to live under constant threat of terrorism, and addresses the thorny domestic and foreign policy challenges this poses. Throughout, Smelser draws from the latest findings in sociology, political science, anthropology, economics, psychology, psychiatry, and history.

 <i>The Faces of Terrorism</i> provides the breadth of scope necessary to understand--and ultimately eliminate--this most pressing global threat.
9781400841387 The Great Brain Debate Dowling, John E. Science Essentials Neurosciences, Biology,  life sciences 2007 200 Whether our personality, intelligence, and behavior are more likely to be shaped by our environment or our genetic coding is not simply an idle question for today's researchers. There are tremendous consequences to understanding the crucial role that environment and genes each play. How we raise and educate our children, how we treat various mental diseases or conditions, how we care for our elderly--these are just some of the issues that can be informed by a better understanding of brain development.

  In <i>The Great Brain Debate</i>, the eminent neuroscience researcher John Dowling looks at these and other important issues. The work that is being done on the connection between the brain and vision, as well as the ways in which our brains help us learn new languages, are particularly revealing. From this groundbreaking new research, Dowling explains startling new insights into how the brain functions and how it can (or cannot) be molded and changed. By studying the brain across the spectrum of our lives, from infancy through adulthood and into old age, Dowling shows the ways in which both nature and nurture play key roles over the course of a human lifetime.
9781400835713 The Mystery of the Missing Antimatter Quinn, Helen R.,Nir, Yossi Science Essentials Popular science, Physics, Materials / States of matter, Cosmology & the universe 2008 296 In the first fractions of a second after the Big Bang lingers a question at the heart of our very existence: why does the universe contain matter but almost no antimatter? The laws of physics tell us that equal amounts of matter and antimatter were produced in the early universe—but then something odd happened. Matter won out over antimatter; had it not, the universe today would be dark and barren.

But how and when did this occur? In <i>The Mystery of the Missing Antimatter</i>, Helen Quinn and Yossi Nir guide readers into the very heart of this mystery—and along the way offer an exhilarating grand tour of cutting-edge physics.
9781400849482 Memory Thompson, Richard F.,Madigan, Stephen A. Science Essentials Astrophysics 2008 288
 <i>Memory</i> is perhaps the most extraordinary phenomenon in the natural world. Every person's brain holds millions of bits of information in long-term storage. This vast memory store includes our extensive vocabulary and knowledge of language; the tremendous and unique variety of facts we've amassed; all the skills we've learned, from walking and talking to musical and athletic performance; many of the emotions we feel; and the continuous sensations, feelings, and understandings of the world we term consciousness. Without memory there can be no mind as we understand it.

  Focusing on cutting-edge research in behavioral science and neuroscience, Memory is a primer of our current scientific understanding of the mechanics of memory and learning. Over the past two decades, memory research has accelerated and we have seen an explosion of new knowledge about the brain. For example, there now exists a wide-ranging and successful applied science devoted exclusively to the study of memory that has yielded better procedures for eliciting valid recollections in legal settings and improved the diagnosis and treatment of memory disorders.

  Everyone fascinated by the scope and power of the human brain will find this book unforgettable.
9781400828166 Wave Scattering by Time-Dependent Perturbations Roach, G. F. Princeton Series in Applied Mathematics Wave mechanics (vibration & acoustics), Quantum physics (quantum mechanics & quantum field theory), Mathematical physics 2008 304 This book offers the first comprehensive introduction to wave scattering in nonstationary materials. G. F. Roach's aim is to provide an accessible, self-contained resource for newcomers to this important field of research that has applications across a broad range of areas, including radar, sonar, diagnostics in engineering and manufacturing, geophysical prospecting, and ultrasonic medicine such as sonograms.

  New methods in recent years have been developed to assess the structure and properties of materials and surfaces. When light, sound, or some other wave energy is directed at the material in question, "imperfections" in the resulting echo can reveal a tremendous amount of valuable diagnostic information. The mathematics behind such analysis is sophisticated and complex. However, while problems involving stationary materials are quite well understood, there is still much to learn about those in which the material is moving or changes over time. These so-called non-autonomous problems are the subject of this fascinating book. Roach develops practical strategies, techniques, and solutions for mathematicians and applied scientists working in or seeking entry into the field of modern scattering theory and its applications.

 <i>Wave Scattering by Time-Dependent Perturbations</i> is destined to become a classic in this rapidly evolving area of inquiry.
9781400847402 T. Rex and the Crater of Doom Alvarez, Walter Princeton Science Library Palaeontology, Dinosaurs & the prehistoric world 2008 208 Sixty-five million years ago, a comet or asteroid larger than Mount Everest slammed into the Earth, inducing an explosion equivalent to the detonation of a hundred million hydrogen bombs. Vaporized detritus blasted through the atmosphere upon impact, falling back to Earth around the globe. Disastrous environmental consequences ensued: a giant tsunami, continent-scale wildfires, darkness, and cold, followed by sweltering greenhouse heat. When conditions returned to normal, half the plant and animal genera on Earth had perished.

This horrific chain of events is now widely accepted as the solution to a great scientific mystery: what caused the extinction of the dinosaurs? Walter Alvarez, one of the Berkeley scientists who discovered evidence of the impact, tells the story behind the development of the initially controversial theory. It is a saga of high adventure in remote locations, of arduous data collection and intellectual struggle, of long periods of frustration ended by sudden breakthroughs, of friendships made and lost, and of the exhilaration of discovery that forever altered our understanding of Earth's geological history.
9781400835676 Wave Propagation Markos, Peter,Soukoulis, Costas M.   Wave mechanics (vibration & acoustics), Applied physics, Electrical engineering, Maths for scientists, Maths for computer scientists 2008 376 This textbook offers the first unified treatment of wave propagation in electronic and electromagnetic systems and introduces readers to the essentials of the transfer matrix method, a powerful analytical tool that can be used to model and study an array of problems pertaining to wave propagation in electrons and photons. It is aimed at graduate and advanced undergraduate students in physics, materials science, electrical and computer engineering, and mathematics, and is ideal for researchers in photonic crystals, negative index materials, left-handed materials, plasmonics, nonlinear effects, and optics.

  Peter Markos and Costas Soukoulis begin by establishing the analogy between wave propagation in electronic systems and electromagnetic media and then show how the transfer matrix can be easily applied to any type of wave propagation, such as electromagnetic, acoustic, and elastic waves. The transfer matrix approach of the tight-binding model allows readers to understand its implementation quickly and all the concepts of solid-state physics are clearly introduced. Markos and Soukoulis then build the discussion of such topics as random systems and localized and delocalized modes around the transfer matrix, bringing remarkable clarity to the subject. Total internal reflection, Brewster angles, evanescent waves, surface waves, and resonant tunneling in left-handed materials are introduced and treated in detail, as are important new developments like photonic crystals, negative index materials, and surface plasmons. Problem sets aid students working through the subject for the first time.
9781400841189 A Survey of Computational Physics Landau, Rubin H.,Páez, José,Bordeianu, Cristian C. Physics, Computer science 2008 688 Computational physics is a rapidly growing subfield of computational science, in large part because computers can solve previously intractable problems or simulate natural processes that do not have analytic solutions. The next step beyond Landau's <i>First Course in Scientific Computing</i> and a follow-up to Landau and Páez's <i>Computational Physics</i>, this text presents a broad survey of key topics in computational physics for advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students, including new discussions of visualization tools, wavelet analysis, molecular dynamics, and computational fluid dynamics. By treating science, applied mathematics, and computer science together, the book reveals how this knowledge base can be applied to a wider range of real-world problems than computational physics texts normally address.

          Designed for a one- or two-semester course, <i>A Survey of Computational Physics</i> will also interest anyone who wants a reference on or practical experience in the basics of computational physics.

            <li>Accessible to advanced undergraduates </li>
            <li>Real-world problem-solving approach </li>
            <li>Java codes and applets integrated with text </li>
            <li>Companion Web site includes videos of lectures </li>
9780691222493 Particle or Wave Anastopoulos, Charis   Popular science, Quantum physics (quantum mechanics & quantum field theory), History of science 2008 432 Particle or Wave is the first popular-level book to explain the origins and development of modern physical concepts about matter and the controversies surrounding them. The dichotomy between particle and wave reflects a dispute--whether the universe's most elementary building blocks are discrete or continuous in nature--originating in antiquity when philosophers first speculated about the makeup of the physical world. Charis Anastopoulos examines two of the earliest known theories about matter--the atomic theory, which attributed all physical phenomena to atoms and their motion in the void, and the theory of the elements, which described matter as consisting of the substances earth, air, fire, and water. He then leads readers up through the ages to the very frontiers of modern physics to reveal how these seemingly contradictory ideas still lie at the heart of today's continuing debates.

  Anastopoulos explores the revolutionary contributions of thinkers like Nicolas Copernicus, Isaac Newton, and Albert Einstein. He shows how Einstein's ideas about relativity unify opposing concepts by identifying matter with energy, and how quantum mechanics goes even further by postulating the coexistence of the particle and the wave descriptions. Anastopoulos surveys the latest advances in physics on the fundamental structure of matter, including the theories of quantum fields and elementary particles, and new cutting-edge ideas about the unification of all forces. This book reveals how the apparent contradictions of particle and wave reflect very different ways of understanding the physical world, and how they are pushing modern science to the threshold of new discoveries.
9781400829880 The Medea Hypothesis Ward, Peter Science Essentials Popular science, Earth sciences, Biology,  life sciences 2009 208 In <i>The Medea Hypothesis</i>, renowned paleontologist Peter Ward proposes a revolutionary and provocative vision of life's relationship with the Earth's biosphere--one that has frightening implications for our future, yet also offers hope. Using the latest discoveries from the geological record, he argues that life might be its own worst enemy. This stands in stark contrast to James Lovelock's Gaia hypothesis--the idea that life sustains habitable conditions on Earth. In answer to Gaia, which draws on the idea of the "good mother" who nurtures life, Ward invokes Medea, the mythical mother who killed her own children. Could life by its very nature threaten its own existence?

  According to the Medea hypothesis, it does. Ward demonstrates that all but one of the mass extinctions that have struck Earth were caused by life itself. He looks at our planet's history in a new way, revealing an Earth that is witnessing an alarming decline of diversity and biomass--a decline brought on by life's own "biocidal" tendencies. And the Medea hypothesis applies not just to our planet--its dire prognosis extends to all potential life in the universe. Yet life on Earth doesn't have to be lethal. Ward shows why, but warns that our time is running out.

  Breathtaking in scope, <i>The Medea Hypothesis</i> is certain to arouse fierce debate and radically transform our worldview. It serves as an urgent challenge to all of us to think in new ways if we hope to save ourselves from ourselves.
9781400833351 Stability and Stabilization Terrell, William J.   Applied mathematics, Differential calculus & equations 2009 480
 <i>Stability and Stabilization</i> is the first intermediate-level textbook that covers stability and stabilization of equilibria for both linear and nonlinear time-invariant systems of ordinary differential equations. Designed for advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students in the sciences, engineering, and mathematics, the book takes a unique modern approach that bridges the gap between linear and nonlinear systems.

  Presenting stability and stabilization of equilibria as a core problem of mathematical control theory, the book emphasizes the subject's mathematical coherence and unity, and it introduces and develops many of the core concepts of systems and control theory. There are five chapters on linear systems and nine chapters on nonlinear systems; an introductory chapter; a mathematical background chapter; a short final chapter on further reading; and appendixes on basic analysis, ordinary differential equations, manifolds and the Frobenius theorem, and comparison functions and their use in differential equations. The introduction to linear system theory presents the full framework of basic state-space theory, providing just enough detail to prepare students for the material on nonlinear systems.

 <li>Focuses on stability and feedback stabilization </li>
 <li>Bridges the gap between linear and nonlinear systems for advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students </li>
 <li>Balances coverage of linear and nonlinear systems </li>
 <li>Covers cascade systems </li>
 <li>Includes many examples and exercises</li>
9781400833382 Quantum Mechanics in a Nutshell Mahan, Gerald D. In a Nutshell Quantum physics (quantum mechanics & quantum field theory), Atomic & molecular physics, Condensed matter physics (liquid state & solid state physics) 2009 416 Covering the fundamentals as well as many special topics of current interest, this is the most concise, up-to-date, and accessible graduate-level textbook on quantum mechanics available. Written by Gerald Mahan, a distinguished research physicist and author of an acclaimed textbook on many-particle physics, <i>Quantum Mechanics in a Nutshell</i> is the distillation of many years' teaching experience.

  Emphasizing the use of quantum mechanics to describe actual quantum systems such as atoms and solids, and rich with interesting applications, the book proceeds from solving for the properties of a single particle in potential; to solving for two particles (the helium atom); to addressing many-particle systems. Applications include electron gas, magnetism, and Bose-Einstein Condensation; examples are carefully chosen and worked; and each chapter has numerous homework problems, many of them original.

 <i>Quantum Mechanics in a Nutshell</i> expertly addresses traditional and modern topics, including perturbation theory, WKBJ, variational methods, angular momentum, the Dirac equation, many-particle wave functions, Casimir Force, and Bell's Theorem. And it treats many topics--such as the interactions between photons and electrons, scattering theory, and density functional theory--in exceptional depth.

  A valuable addition to the teaching literature, <i>Quantum Mechanics in a Nutshell</i> is ideally suited for a two-semester course.

 <li>The most concise, up-to-date, and accessible graduate textbook on the subject </li>
 <li>Contains the ideal amount of material for a two-semester course </li>
 <li>Focuses on the description of actual quantum systems, including a range of applications </li>
 <li>Covers traditional topics, as well as those at the frontiers of research </li>
 <li>Treats in unprecedented detail topics such as photon-electron interaction, scattering theory, and density functional theory </li>
 <li>Includes numerous homework problems at the end of each chapter </li>
9781400831050 Robust Optimization Ben-Tal, Aharon,El Ghaoui, Laurent,Nemirovski, Arkadi Princeton Series in Applied Mathematics Optimization, Linear programming, Maths for engineers 2009 576 Robust optimization is still a relatively new approach to optimization problems affected by uncertainty, but it has already proved so useful in real applications that it is difficult to tackle such problems today without considering this powerful methodology. Written by the principal developers of robust optimization, and describing the main achievements of a decade of research, this is the first book to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the subject.

 Robust optimization is designed to meet some major challenges associated with uncertainty-affected optimization problems: to operate under lack of full information on the nature of uncertainty; to model the problem in a form that can be solved efficiently; and to provide guarantees about the performance of the solution.

 The book starts with a relatively simple treatment of uncertain linear programming, proceeding with a deep analysis of the interconnections between the construction of appropriate uncertainty sets and the classical chance constraints (probabilistic) approach. It then develops the robust optimization theory for uncertain conic quadratic and semidefinite optimization problems and dynamic (multistage) problems. The theory is supported by numerous examples and computational illustrations.

 An essential book for anyone working on optimization and decision making under uncertainty, <i>Robust Optimization</i> also makes an ideal graduate textbook on the subject.
9781400831470 Distributed Control of Robotic Networks Bullo, Francesco,Cortés, Jorge,Martínez, Sonia Princeton Series in Applied Mathematics Robotics, Computer science, Maths for engineers 2009 320 This self-contained introduction to the distributed control of robotic networks offers a distinctive blend of computer science and control theory. The book presents a broad set of tools for understanding coordination algorithms, determining their correctness, and assessing their complexity; and it analyzes various cooperative strategies for tasks such as consensus, rendezvous, connectivity maintenance, deployment, and boundary estimation. The unifying theme is a formal model for robotic networks that explicitly incorporates their communication, sensing, control, and processing capabilities--a model that in turn leads to a common formal language to describe and analyze coordination algorithms.

 Written for first- and second-year graduate students in control and robotics, the book will also be useful to researchers in control theory, robotics, distributed algorithms, and automata theory. The book provides explanations of the basic concepts and main results, as well as numerous examples and exercises.

 <li>Self-contained exposition of graph-theoretic concepts, distributed algorithms, and complexity measures for processor networks with fixed interconnection topology and for robotic networks with position-dependent interconnection topology </li>
 <li>Detailed treatment of averaging and consensus algorithms interpreted as linear iterations on synchronous networks </li>
 <li>Introduction of geometric notions such as partitions, proximity graphs, and multicenter functions </li>
 <li>Detailed treatment of motion coordination algorithms for deployment, rendezvous, connectivity maintenance, and boundary estimation</li>
9781400832538 Gamma Havil, Julian Princeton Science Library History of mathematics, Philosophy of mathematics, History of science, Mathematics 2010 296 Among the many constants that appear in mathematics, <i>π</i>, <i>e</i>, and <i>i</i> are the most familiar. Following closely behind is <i>y</i>, or gamma, a constant that arises in many mathematical areas yet maintains a profound sense of mystery.

 In a tantalizing blend of history and mathematics, Julian Havil takes the reader on a journey through logarithms and the harmonic series, the two defining elements of gamma, toward the first account of gamma's place in mathematics.

 Introduced by the Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler (1707-1783), who figures prominently in this book, gamma is defined as the limit of the sum of 1 + 1/2 + 1/3 + . . . Up to 1/<i>n</i>, minus the natural logarithm of <i>n</i>--the numerical value being 0.5772156. . . . But unlike its more celebrated colleagues <i>π</i> and <i>e</i>, the exact nature of gamma remains a mystery--we don't even know if gamma can be expressed as a fraction.

 Among the numerous topics that arise during this historical odyssey into fundamental mathematical ideas are the Prime Number Theorem and the most important open problem in mathematics today--the Riemann Hypothesis (though no proof of either is offered!).

 Sure to be popular with not only students and instructors but all math aficionados, <i>Gamma</i> takes us through countries, centuries, lives, and works, unfolding along the way the stories of some remarkable mathematics from some remarkable mathematicians.
9781400833887 Matrices, Moments and Quadrature with Applications Golub, Gene H.,Meurant, Gérard Princeton Series in Applied Mathematics Mathematics, Algorithms & data structures, Maths for computer scientists 2010 376 This computationally oriented book describes and explains the mathematical relationships among matrices, moments, orthogonal polynomials, quadrature rules, and the Lanczos and conjugate gradient algorithms. The book bridges different mathematical areas to obtain algorithms to estimate bilinear forms involving two vectors and a function of the matrix. The first part of the book provides the necessary mathematical background and explains the theory. The second part describes the applications and gives numerical examples of the algorithms and techniques developed in the first part.

 Applications addressed in the book include computing elements of functions of matrices; obtaining estimates of the error norm in iterative methods for solving linear systems and computing parameters in least squares and total least squares; and solving ill-posed problems using Tikhonov regularization.

 This book will interest researchers in numerical linear algebra and matrix computations, as well as scientists and engineers working on problems involving computation of bilinear forms.
9781400834389 Chasing Stars Groysberg, Boris   Organizational theory & behaviour, Personnel & human resources management, Business & management 2010 504 <b>Why corporate stars often lose their luster after changing jobs</b>

It is taken for granted in the knowledge economy that companies must employ the most talented performers to compete and succeed. Many firms try to buy stars by luring them away from competitors. But Boris Groysberg shows what an uncertain and disastrous practice this can be.

After examining the careers of more than a thousand star analysts at Wall Street investment banks, and conducting more than two hundred frank interviews, Groysberg comes to a striking conclusion: star analysts who change firms suffer an immediate and lasting decline in performance. Their earlier excellence appears to have depended heavily on their former firms' general and proprietary resources, organizational cultures, networks, and colleagues. There are a few exceptions, such as stars who move with their teams and stars who switch to better firms. Female stars also perform better after changing jobs than their male counterparts do. But most stars who switch firms turn out to be meteors, quickly losing luster in their new settings.

Groysberg also explores how some Wall Street research departments are successfully growing, retaining, and deploying their own stars. Finally, the book examines how its findings apply to many other occupations, from general managers to football players.

<i>Chasing Stars</i> offers profound insights into the fundamental nature of outstanding performance. It also offers practical guidance to individuals on how to manage their careers strategically, and to companies on how to identify, develop, and keep talent.
9781400834433 The Little Book of String Theory Gubser, Steven S. Science Essentials Popular science, Physics, Quantum physics (quantum mechanics & quantum field theory) 2010 184 <b>The essential beginner's guide to string theory</b>

<i>The Little Book of String Theory</i> offers a short, accessible, and entertaining introduction to one of the most talked-about areas of physics today. String theory has been called the "theory of everything." It seeks to describe all the fundamental forces of nature. It encompasses gravity and quantum mechanics in one unifying theory. But it is unproven and fraught with controversy. After reading this book, you'll be able to draw your own conclusions about string theory.

Steve Gubser begins by explaining Einstein's famous equation <i>E = mc2</i>, quantum mechanics, and black holes. He then gives readers a crash course in string theory and the core ideas behind it. In plain English and with a minimum of mathematics, Gubser covers strings, branes, string dualities, extra dimensions, curved spacetime, quantum fluctuations, symmetry, and supersymmetry. He describes efforts to link string theory to experimental physics and uses analogies that nonscientists can understand. How does Chopin's Fantasie-Impromptu relate to quantum mechanics? What would it be like to fall into a black hole? Why is dancing a waltz similar to contemplating a string duality? Find out in the pages of this book.

<i>The Little Book of String Theory</i> is the essential, most up-to-date beginner's guide to this elegant, multidimensional field of physics.
9781400834730 Plows, Plagues, and Petroleum Ruddiman, William F. Princeton Science Library Popular science, Earth sciences, Climate change, History of science 2010 240 The impact on climate from 200 years of industrial development is an everyday fact of life, but did humankind's active involvement in climate change really begin with the industrial revolution, as commonly believed? <i>Plows, Plagues, and Petroleum</i> has sparked lively scientific debate since it was first published--arguing that humans have actually been changing the climate for some 8,000 years--as a result of the earlier discovery of agriculture.

The "Ruddiman Hypothesis" will spark intense debate. We learn that the impact of farming on greenhouse-gas levels, thousands of years before the industrial revolution, kept our planet notably warmer than if natural climate cycles had prevailed--quite possibly forestalling a new ice age.

<i>Plows, Plagues, and Petroleum</i> is the first book to trace the full historical sweep of human interaction with Earth's climate. Ruddiman takes us through three broad stages of human history: when nature was in control; when humans began to take control, discovering agriculture and affecting climate through carbon dioxide and methane emissions; and, finally, the more recent human impact on climate change. Along the way he raises the fascinating possibility that plagues, by depleting human populations, also affected reforestation and thus climate--as suggested by dips in greenhouse gases when major pandemics have occurred. While our massive usage of fossil fuels has certainly contributed to modern climate change, Ruddiman shows that industrial growth is only part of the picture. The book concludes by looking to the future and critiquing the impact of special interest money on the global warming debate. In the afterword, Ruddiman explores the main challenges posed to his hypothesis, and shows how recent investigations and findings ultimately strengthen the book's original claims.
9781400833894 An Imaginary Tale Nahin, Paul J. Princeton Science Library Popular science, Mathematics 2010 296 Today complex numbers have such widespread practical use--from electrical engineering to aeronautics--that few people would expect the story behind their derivation to be filled with adventure and enigma. In <i>An Imaginary Tale</i>, Paul Nahin tells the 2000-year-old history of one of mathematics' most elusive numbers, the square root of minus one, also known as <i>i</i>. He recreates the baffling mathematical problems that conjured it up, and the colorful characters who tried to solve them.

In 1878, when two brothers stole a mathematical papyrus from the ancient Egyptian burial site in the Valley of Kings, they led scholars to the earliest known occurrence of the square root of a negative number. The papyrus offered a specific numerical example of how to calculate the volume of a truncated square pyramid, which implied the need for <i>i</i>. In the first century, the mathematician-engineer Heron of Alexandria encountered <i>I </i>in a separate project, but fudged the arithmetic; medieval mathematicians stumbled upon the concept while grappling with the meaning of negative numbers, but dismissed their square roots as nonsense. By the time of Descartes, a theoretical use for these elusive square roots--now called "imaginary numbers"--was suspected, but efforts to solve them led to intense, bitter debates. The notorious <i>i</i> finally won acceptance and was put to use in complex analysis and theoretical physics in Napoleonic times.

Addressing readers with both a general and scholarly interest in mathematics, Nahin weaves into this narrative entertaining historical facts and mathematical discussions, including the application of complex numbers and functions to important problems, such as Kepler's laws of planetary motion and ac electrical circuits. This book can be read as an engaging history, almost a biography, of one of the most evasive and pervasive "numbers" in all of mathematics.

Some images inside the book are unavailable due to digital copyright restrictions.
9781400837038 Statistical and Thermal Physics Gould, Harvey,Tobochnik, Jan   Statistical physics, Thermodynamics & heat 2010 552 This textbook carefully develops the main ideas and techniques of statistical and thermal physics and is intended for upper-level undergraduate courses. The authors each have more than thirty years' experience in teaching, curriculum development, and research in statistical and computational physics.

<i>Statistical and Thermal Physics</i> begins with a qualitative discussion of the relation between the macroscopic and microscopic worlds and incorporates computer simulations throughout the book to provide concrete examples of important conceptual ideas. Unlike many contemporary texts on thermal physics, this book presents thermodynamic reasoning as an independent way of thinking about macroscopic systems. Probability concepts and techniques are introduced, including topics that are useful for understanding how probability and statistics are used. Magnetism and the Ising model are considered in greater depth than in most undergraduate texts, and ideal quantum gases are treated within a uniform framework. Advanced chapters on fluids and critical phenomena are appropriate for motivated undergraduates and beginning graduate students.
<ul><li>Integrates Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations as well as other numerical techniques throughout the text</li><li>Provides self-contained introductions to thermodynamics and statistical mechanics</li><li>Discusses probability concepts and methods in detail</li><li>Contains ideas and methods from contemporary research</li><li>Includes advanced chapters that provide a natural bridge to graduate study</li><li>Features more than 400 problems</li><li>Programs are open source and available in an executable cross-platform format</li><li>Solutions manual (available only to teachers)</li></ul>
9780691199498 The Pythagorean Theorem Maor, Eli Princeton Science Library Geometry, Philosophy of mathematics 2010 296 <b>An exploration of one of the most celebrated and well-known theorems in mathematics</b>

By any measure, the Pythagorean theorem is the most famous statement in all of mathematics. In this book, Eli Maor reveals the full story of this ubiquitous geometric theorem. Although attributed to Pythagoras, the theorem was known to the Babylonians more than a thousand years earlier. Pythagoras may have been the first to prove it, but his proof—if indeed he had one—is lost to us. The theorem itself, however, is central to almost every branch of science, pure or applied. Maor brings to life many of the characters that played a role in its history, providing a fascinating backdrop to perhaps our oldest enduring mathematical legacy.
9781400837007 What Are Gamma-Ray Bursts? Bloom, Joshua S. Princeton Frontiers in Physics Astrophysics 2011 280 Gamma-ray bursts are the brightest--and, until recently, among the least understood--cosmic events in the universe. Discovered by chance during the cold war, these evanescent high-energy explosions confounded astronomers for decades. But a rapid series of startling breakthroughs beginning in 1997 revealed that the majority of gamma-ray bursts are caused by the explosions of young and massive stars in the vast star-forming cauldrons of distant galaxies. New findings also point to very different origins for some events, serving to complicate but enrich our understanding of the exotic and violent universe. <i>What Are Gamma-Ray Bursts?</i> is a succinct introduction to this fast-growing subject, written by an astrophysicist who is at the forefront of today's research into these incredible cosmic phenomena.

  Joshua Bloom gives readers a concise and accessible overview of gamma-ray bursts and the theoretical framework that physicists have developed to make sense of complex observations across the electromagnetic spectrum. He traces the history of remarkable discoveries that led to our current understanding of gamma-ray bursts, and reveals the decisive role these phenomena could play in the grand pursuits of twenty-first century astrophysics, from studying gravity waves and unveiling the growth of stars and galaxies after the big bang to surmising the ultimate fate of the universe itself.

 <i>What Are Gamma-Ray Bursts?</i> is an essential primer to this exciting frontier of scientific inquiry, and a must-read for anyone seeking to keep pace with cutting-edge developments in physics today.
9781400837021 Condensed Matter in a Nutshell Mahan, Gerald D. In a Nutshell Condensed matter physics (liquid state & solid state physics), Materials science 2011 592
 <i>Condensed Matter in a Nutshell</i> is the most concise, accessible, and self-contained introduction to this exciting and cutting-edge area of modern physics. This premier textbook covers all the standard topics, including crystal structures, energy bands, phonons, optical properties, ferroelectricity, superconductivity, and magnetism. It includes in-depth discussions of transport theory, nanoscience, and semiconductors, and also features the latest experimental advances in this fast-developing field, such as high-temperature superconductivity, the quantum Hall effect, graphene, nanotubes, localization, Hubbard models, density functional theory, phonon focusing, and Kapitza resistance. Rich in detail and full of examples and problems, this textbook is the complete resource for a two-semester graduate course in condensed matter and material physics.

 <li>Covers standard topics like crystal structures, energy bands, and phonons </li>
 <li>Features the latest advances like high-temperature superconductivity and more </li>
 <li>Full of instructive examples and challenging problems </li>
 <li>Solutions manual (available only to teachers)</li>
9781400837045 Principles of Laser Spectroscopy and Quantum Optics Berman, Paul R.,Malinovsky, Vladimir S.   Quantum physics (quantum mechanics & quantum field theory), Condensed matter physics (liquid state & solid state physics), Optical physics, Atomic & molecular physics, Electricity,  electromagnetism & magnetism 2011 544
 <i>Principles of Laser Spectroscopy and Quantum Optics</i> is an essential textbook for graduate students studying the interaction of optical fields with atoms. It also serves as an ideal reference text for researchers working in the fields of laser spectroscopy and quantum optics.

  The book provides a rigorous introduction to the prototypical problems of radiation fields interacting with two- and three-level atomic systems. It examines the interaction of radiation with both atomic vapors and condensed matter systems, the density matrix and the Bloch vector, and applications involving linear absorption and saturation spectroscopy. Other topics include hole burning, dark states, slow light, and coherent transient spectroscopy, as well as atom optics and atom interferometry. In the second half of the text, the authors consider applications in which the radiation field is quantized. Topics include spontaneous decay, optical pumping, sub-Doppler laser cooling, the Heisenberg equations of motion for atomic and field operators, and light scattering by atoms in both weak and strong external fields. The concluding chapter offers methods for creating entangled and spin-squeezed states of matter.

  Instructors can create a one-semester course based on this book by combining the introductory chapters with a selection of the more advanced material. A solutions manual is available to teachers.

 <li>Rigorous introduction to the interaction of optical fields with atoms </li>
 <li>Applications include linear and nonlinear spectroscopy, dark states, and slow light </li>
 <li>Extensive chapter on atom optics and atom interferometry </li>
 <li>Conclusion explores entangled and spin-squeezed states of matter </li>
 <li>Solutions manual (available only to teachers)</li>
9781400837076 The Global Carbon Cycle Archer, David Princeton Primers in Climate Earth sciences, Geophysics, Climate change 2011 216
 <i>The Global Carbon Cycle</i> is a short introduction to this essential geochemical driver of the Earth's climate system, written by one of the world's leading climate-science experts. In this one-of-a-kind primer, David Archer engages readers in clear and simple terms about the many ways the global carbon cycle is woven into our climate system. He begins with a concise overview of the subject, and then looks at the carbon cycle on three different time scales, describing how the cycle interacts with climate in very distinct ways in each. On million-year time scales, feedbacks in the carbon cycle stabilize Earth's climate and oxygen concentrations. Archer explains how on hundred-thousand-year glacial/interglacial time scales, the carbon cycle in the ocean amplifies climate change, and how, on the human time scale of decades, the carbon cycle has been dampening climate change by absorbing fossil-fuel carbon dioxide into the oceans and land biosphere. A central question of the book is whether the carbon cycle could once again act to amplify climate change in centuries to come, for example through melting permafrost peatlands and methane hydrates.

 <i>The Global Carbon Cycle</i> features a glossary of terms, suggestions for further reading, and explanations of equations, as well as a forward-looking discussion of open questions about the global carbon cycle.
9781400838479 Dr. Euler's Fabulous Formula Nahin, Paul J. Princeton Science Library Philosophy of mathematics, Complex analysis,  complex variables, Applied mathematics, Calculus, Differential calculus & equations, Popular science 2011 416 In the mid-eighteenth century, Swiss-born mathematician Leonhard Euler developed a formula so innovative and complex that it continues to inspire research, discussion, and even the occasional limerick. <i>Dr. Euler's Fabulous Formula</i> shares the fascinating story of this groundbreaking formula—long regarded as the gold standard for mathematical beauty—and shows why it still lies at the heart of complex number theory. In some ways a sequel to Nahin's <i>An Imaginary Tale</i>, this book examines the many applications of complex numbers alongside intriguing stories from the history of mathematics. <i>Dr. Euler's Fabulous Formula</i> is accessible to any reader familiar with calculus and differential equations, and promises to inspire mathematicians for years to come.
9781400839018 Totally Nonnegative Matrices Fallat, Shaun M.,Johnson, Charles R. Princeton Series in Applied Mathematics Applied mathematics 2011 264 Totally nonnegative matrices arise in a remarkable variety of mathematical applications. This book is a comprehensive and self-contained study of the essential theory of totally nonnegative matrices, defined by the nonnegativity of all subdeterminants. It explores methodological background, historical highlights of key ideas, and specialized topics.

 The book uses classical and ad hoc tools, but a unifying theme is the elementary bidiagonal factorization, which has emerged as the single most important tool for this particular class of matrices. Recent work has shown that bidiagonal factorizations may be viewed in a succinct combinatorial way, leading to many deep insights. Despite slow development, bidiagonal factorizations, along with determinants, now provide the dominant methodology for understanding total nonnegativity. The remainder of the book treats important topics, such as recognition of totally nonnegative or totally positive matrices, variation diminution, spectral properties, determinantal inequalities, Hadamard products, and completion problems associated with totally nonnegative or totally positive matrices. The book also contains sample applications, an up-to-date bibliography, a glossary of all symbols used, an index, and related references.
9781400839025 Modern Anti-windup Synthesis Zaccarian, Luca,Teel, Andrew R. Princeton Series in Applied Mathematics Applied mathematics, Maths for engineers 2011 304 This book provides a wide variety of state-space--based numerical algorithms for the synthesis of feedback algorithms for linear systems with input saturation. Specifically, it addresses and solves the anti-windup problem, presenting the objectives and terminology of the problem, the mathematical tools behind anti-windup algorithms, and more than twenty algorithms for anti-windup synthesis, illustrated with examples. Luca Zaccarian and Andrew Teel's modern method--combining a state-space approach with algorithms generated by solving linear matrix inequalities--treats MIMO and SISO systems with equal ease. The book, aimed at control engineers as well as graduate students, ranges from very simple anti-windup construction to sophisticated anti-windup algorithms for nonlinear systems.

 <li>Describes the fundamental objectives and principles behind anti-windup synthesis for control systems with actuator saturation </li>
 <li>Takes a modern, state-space approach to synthesis that applies to both SISO and MIMO systems </li>
 <li>Presents algorithms as linear matrix inequalities that can be readily solved with widely available software </li>
 <li>Explains mathematical concepts that motivate synthesis algorithms </li>
 <li>Uses nonlinear performance curves to quantify performance relative to disturbances of varying magnitudes </li>
 <li>Includes anti-windup algorithms for a class of Euler-Lagrange nonlinear systems </li>
 <li>Traces the history of anti-windup research through an extensive annotated bibliography</li>
9781400839070 Engineering Dynamics Kasdin, N. Jeremy,Paley, Derek A. Mechanical engineering, Applied physics 2011 704 This textbook introduces undergraduate students to engineering dynamics using an innovative approach that is at once accessible and comprehensive. Combining the strengths of both beginner and advanced dynamics texts, this book has students solving dynamics problems from the very start and gradually guides them from the basics to increasingly more challenging topics without ever sacrificing rigor.

 <i>Engineering Dynamics</i> spans the full range of mechanics problems, from one-dimensional particle kinematics to three-dimensional rigid-body dynamics, including an introduction to Lagrange's and Kane's methods. It skillfully blends an easy-to-read, conversational style with careful attention to the physics and mathematics of engineering dynamics, and emphasizes the formal systematic notation students need to solve problems correctly and succeed in more advanced courses. This richly illustrated textbook features numerous real-world examples and problems, incorporating a wide range of difficulty; ample use of MATLAB for solving problems; helpful tutorials; suggestions for further reading; and detailed appendixes.

 <li>Provides an accessible yet rigorous introduction to engineering dynamics </li>
 <li>Uses an explicit vector-based notation to facilitate understanding </li>
  Professors: A supplementary Instructor's Manual is available for this book. It is restricted to teachers using the text in courses. For information on how to obtain a copy, refer to:
9781400840595 Matrix Completions, Moments, and Sums of Hermitian Squares Bakonyi, Mihály,Woerdeman, Hugo J. Princeton Series in Applied Mathematics Complex analysis,  complex variables 2011 560 Intensive research in matrix completions, moments, and sums of Hermitian squares has yielded a multitude of results in recent decades. This book provides a comprehensive account of this quickly developing area of mathematics and applications and gives complete proofs of many recently solved problems. With MATLAB codes and more than 200 exercises, the book is ideal for a special topics course for graduate or advanced undergraduate students in mathematics or engineering, and will also be a valuable resource for researchers.

  Often driven by questions from signal processing, control theory, and quantum information, the subject of this book has inspired mathematicians from many subdisciplines, including linear algebra, operator theory, measure theory, and complex function theory. In turn, the applications are being pursued by researchers in areas such as electrical engineering, computer science, and physics.

  The book is self-contained, has many examples, and for the most part requires only a basic background in undergraduate mathematics, primarily linear algebra and some complex analysis. The book also includes an extensive discussion of the literature, with close to 600 references from books and journals from a wide variety of disciplines.
9781400839360 Statistical Mechanics in a Nutshell Peliti, Luca In a Nutshell Quantum physics (quantum mechanics & quantum field theory), Statistical physics, Classical mechanics 2011 416 <b>A concise introduction to statistical mechanics</b>

Statistical mechanics is one of the most exciting areas of physics today, and it also has applications to subjects as diverse as economics, social behavior, algorithmic theory, and evolutionary biology. <i>Statistical Mechanics in a Nutshell</i> offers the most concise, self-contained introduction to this rapidly developing field. Requiring only a background in elementary calculus and elementary mechanics, this book starts with the basics, introduces the most important developments in classical statistical mechanics over the last thirty years, and guides readers to the very threshold of today's cutting-edge research.

<i>Statistical Mechanics in a Nutshell</i> zeroes in on the most relevant and promising advances in the field, including the theory of phase transitions, generalized Brownian motion and stochastic dynamics, the methods underlying Monte Carlo simulations, complex systems—and much, much more. The essential resource on the subject, this book is the most up-to-date and accessible introduction available for graduate students and advanced undergraduates seeking a succinct primer on the core ideas of statistical mechanics.
<ul><li>Provides the most concise, self-contained introduction to statistical mechanics</li><li>Focuses on the most promising advances, not complicated calculations</li><li>Requires only elementary calculus and elementary mechanics</li><li>Guides readers from the basics to the threshold of modern research</li><li>Highlights the broad scope of applications of statistical mechanics</li>

9780691202853 Reinventing Discovery Nielsen, Michael Princeton Science Library Popular science, Technology: general issues, Communications engineering / telecommunications 2011 272 <b>How the internet and powerful online tools are democratizing and accelerating scientific discovery</b>

<i>Reinventing Discovery</i> argues that we are living at the dawn of the most dramatic change in science in more than three hundred years. This change is being driven by powerful cognitive tools, enabled by the internet, which are greatly accelerating scientific discovery. There are many books about how the internet is changing business, the workplace, or government. But this is the first book about something much more fundamental: how the internet is transforming our collective intelligence and our understanding of the world. From the collaborative mathematicians of the Polymath Project to the amateur astronomers of Galaxy Zoo, <i>Reinventing Discovery</i> tells the exciting story of the unprecedented new era in networked science. It will interest anyone who wants to learn about how the online world is revolutionizing scientific discovery—and why the revolution is just beginning.
9781400839094 Fundamentals of Spacecraft Charging Lai, Shu T. Astronautics, Astrophysics, Engineering: general 2012 272 As commercial and military spacecraft become more important to the world's economy and defense, and as new scientific and exploratory missions are launched into space, the need for a single comprehensive resource on spacecraft charging becomes increasingly critical. <i>Fundamentals of Spacecraft Charging</i> is the first and only textbook to bring together all the necessary concepts and equations for a complete understanding of the subject. Written by one of the field's leading authorities, this essential reference enables readers to fully grasp the newest ideas and underlying physical mechanisms related to the electrostatic charging of spacecraft in the space environment.

 Assuming that readers may have little or no background in this area, this complete textbook covers all aspects of the field. The coverage is detailed and thorough, and topics range from secondary and backscattered electrons, spacecraft charging in Maxwellian plasmas, effective mitigation techniques, and potential wells and barriers to operational anomalies, meteors, and neutral gas release. Significant equations are derived from first principles, and abundant examples, exercises, figures, illustrations, and tables are furnished to facilitate comprehension. <i>Fundamentals of Spacecraft Charging</i> is the definitive reference on the physics of spacecraft charging and is suitable for advanced undergraduates, graduate-level students, and professional space researchers.

Some images inside the book are unavailable due to digital copyright restrictions.
9781400840601 Small Unmanned Aircraft Beard, Randal W.,McLain, Timothy W.   Engineering: general, Maths for engineers, Mathematics & science, Aerodynamics 2012 320 Autonomous unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) are critical to current and future military, civil, and commercial operations. Despite their importance, no previous textbook has accessibly introduced UAVs to students in the engineering, computer, and science disciplines--until now. <i>Small Unmanned Aircraft</i> provides a concise but comprehensive description of the key concepts and technologies underlying the dynamics, control, and guidance of fixed-wing unmanned aircraft, and enables all students with an introductory-level background in controls or robotics to enter this exciting and important area.

  The authors explore the essential underlying physics and sensors of UAV problems, including low-level autopilot for stability and higher-level autopilot functions of path planning. The textbook leads the student from rigid-body dynamics through aerodynamics, stability augmentation, and state estimation using onboard sensors, to maneuvering through obstacles. To facilitate understanding, the authors have replaced traditional homework assignments with a simulation project using the MATLAB/Simulink environment. Students begin by modeling rigid-body dynamics, then add aerodynamics and sensor models. They develop low-level autopilot code, extended Kalman filters for state estimation, path-following routines, and high-level path-planning algorithms. The final chapter of the book focuses on UAV guidance using machine vision.

  Designed for advanced undergraduate or graduate students in engineering or the sciences, this book offers a bridge to the aerodynamics and control of UAV flight.
9781400839353 Elementary Particle Physics in a Nutshell Tully, Christopher G. In a Nutshell Particle & high-energy physics, Atomic & molecular physics, Nuclear physics 2012 320 <b>An introduction to high-energy physics that prepares students to understand the experimental frontier</b>

The new experiments underway at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Switzerland may significantly change our understanding of elementary particle physics and, indeed, the universe. This textbook provides a cutting-edge introduction to the field, preparing first-year graduate students and advanced undergraduates to understand and work in LHC physics at the dawn of what promises to be an era of experimental and theoretical breakthroughs.

Christopher Tully, an active participant in the work at the LHC, explains some of the most recent experiments in the field. But this book, which emerged from a course at Princeton University, also provides a comprehensive understanding of the subject. It explains every elementary particle physics process—whether it concerns nonaccelerator experiments, particle astrophysics, or the description of the early universe—as a gauge interaction coupled to the known building blocks of matter. Designed for a one-semester course that is complementary to a course in quantum field theory, the book gives special attention to high-energy collider physics, and includes a detailed discussion of the state of the search for the Higgs boson.<ul><li>Introduces elementary particle processes relevant to astrophysics, collider physics, and the physics of the early universe</li><li>Covers experimental methods, detectors, and measurements</li><li>Features a detailed discussion of the Higgs boson search</li><li>Includes many challenging exercises</li></ul>Professors: A supplementary Instructor's Manual which provides solutions for Chapters 1-3 of the textbook, is available as a PDF. It is restricted to teachers using the text in courses. To obtain a copy, please email your request to: Ingrid_Gnerlich "at"
9781400840625 Climate and the Oceans Vallis, Geoffrey K. Princeton Primers in Climate Meteorology & climatology, The environment, Climate change, Oceanography (seas) 2012 248 The oceans exert a vital moderating influence on the Earth's climate system. They provide inertia to the global climate, essentially acting as the pacemaker of climate variability and change, and they provide heat to high latitudes, keeping them habitable. <i>Climate and the Oceans</i> offers a short, self-contained introduction to the subject. This illustrated primer begins by briefly describing the world's climate system and ocean circulation and goes on to explain the important ways that the oceans influence climate. Topics covered include the oceans' effects on the seasons, heat transport between equator and pole, climate variability, and global warming. The book also features a glossary of terms, suggestions for further reading, and easy-to-follow mathematical treatments.

 <i>Climate and the Oceans</i> is the first place to turn to get the essential facts about this crucial aspect of the Earth's climate system. Ideal for students and nonspecialists alike, this primer offers the most concise and up-to-date overview of the subject available.

 <li>The best primer on the oceans and climate </li>
 <li>Succinct and self-contained </li>
 <li>Accessible to students and nonspecialists </li>
 <li>Serves as a bridge to more advanced material</li>
9781400840618 The Cryosphere Marshall, Shawn J. Princeton Primers in Climate Earth sciences, Meteorology & climatology 2012 304 The cryosphere encompasses the Earth's snow and ice masses. It is a critical part of our planet's climate system, one that is especially at risk from climate change and global warming. <i>The Cryosphere</i> provides an essential introduction to the subject, written by one of the world's leading experts in Earth-system science.

  In this primer, glaciologist Shawn Marshall introduces readers to the cryosphere and the broader role it plays in our global climate system. After giving a concise overview, he fully explains each component of the cryosphere and how it works--seasonal snow, permafrost, river and lake ice, sea ice, glaciers, ice sheets, and ice shelves. Marshall describes how snow and ice interact with our atmosphere and oceans and how they influence climate, sea level, and ocean circulation. He looks at the cryosphere's role in past ice ages and considers the changing cryosphere's future impact on our landscape, oceans, and climate.

  Accessible and authoritative, this primer also features a glossary of key terms, suggestions for further reading, explanations of equations, and a discussion of open research questions in the field.
9781400841660 Nature's Compass Gould, James L.,Gould, Carol Grant Science Essentials Popular science, Animal behaviour, Evolution, Zoology & animal sciences 2012 320 <b>The mysterious and remarkable ways that animals navigate</b>

We know that animals cross miles of water, land, and sky with pinpoint precision on a daily basis. But it is only in recent years that scientists have learned how these astounding feats of navigation are actually accomplished. With colorful and thorough detail, <i>Nature's Compass</i> explores the remarkable methods by which animals find their way both near home and around the globe. Noted biologist James Gould and popular science writer Carol Gould delve into the elegant strategies and fail-safe backup systems, the invisible sensitivities and mysterious forces, and incredible mental abilities used by familiar and rare species, as they investigate a multitude of navigation strategies, from the simple to the astonishing.

The Goulds discuss how animals navigate, without instruments and training, at a level far beyond human talents. They explain how animals measure time and show how the fragile monarch butterfly employs an internal clock, calendar, compass, and map to commence and measure the two-thousand-mile annual journey to Mexico<i>—</i>all with a brain that weighs only a few thousandths of an ounce. They look at honey bees and how they rely on the sun and mental maps to locate landmarks such as nests and flowers. And they examine whether long-distance migrants, such as the homing pigeon, depend on a global positioning system to let them know where they are. Ultimately, the authors ask if the disruption of migratory paths through habitat destruction and global warming is affecting and endangering animal species.

Providing a comprehensive picture of animal navigation and migration, <i>Nature's Compass</i> decodes the mysteries of this extraordinary aspect of natural behavior.
9781400842650 Mathematical Analysis of Deterministic and Stochastic Problems in Complex Media Electromagnetics Roach, G. F.,Stratis, I. G.,Yannacopoulos, A. N. Princeton Series in Applied Mathematics Electricity,  electromagnetism & magnetism, Applied mathematics, Physics, Energy technology & engineering 2012 400 Electromagnetic complex media are artificial materials that affect the propagation of electromagnetic waves in surprising ways not usually seen in nature. Because of their wide range of important applications, these materials have been intensely studied over the past twenty-five years, mainly from the perspectives of physics and engineering. But a body of rigorous mathematical theory has also gradually developed, and this is the first book to present that theory.

 Designed for researchers and advanced graduate students in applied mathematics, electrical engineering, and physics, this book introduces the electromagnetics of complex media through a systematic, state-of-the-art account of their mathematical theory. The book combines the study of well posedness, homogenization, and controllability of Maxwell equations complemented with constitutive relations describing complex media. The book treats deterministic and stochastic problems both in the frequency and time domains. It also covers computational aspects and scattering problems, among other important topics. Detailed appendices make the book self-contained in terms of mathematical prerequisites, and accessible to engineers and physicists as well as mathematicians.
9781400842667 Stability and Control of Large-Scale Dynamical Systems Haddad, Wassim M.,Nersesov, Sergey G. Princeton Series in Applied Mathematics Applied mathematics, Engineering: general 2012 384 Modern complex large-scale dynamical systems exist in virtually every aspect of science and engineering, and are associated with a wide variety of physical, technological, environmental, and social phenomena, including aerospace, power, communications, and network systems, to name just a few. This book develops a general stability analysis and control design framework for nonlinear large-scale interconnected dynamical systems, and presents the most complete treatment on vector Lyapunov function methods, vector dissipativity theory, and decentralized control architectures.

 Large-scale dynamical systems are strongly interconnected and consist of interacting subsystems exchanging matter, energy, or information with the environment. The sheer size, or dimensionality, of these systems necessitates decentralized analysis and control system synthesis methods for their analysis and design. Written in a theorem-proof format with examples to illustrate new concepts, this book addresses continuous-time, discrete-time, and hybrid large-scale systems. It develops finite-time stability and finite-time decentralized stabilization, thermodynamic modeling, maximum entropy control, and energy-based decentralized control.

 This book will interest applied mathematicians, dynamical systems theorists, control theorists, and engineers, and anyone seeking a fundamental and comprehensive understanding of large-scale interconnected dynamical systems and control.
9781400842773 Atmosphere, Clouds, and Climate Randall, David Princeton Primers in Climate Environmental science,  engineering & technology, Meteorology & climatology 2012 288 <b>An essential primer on atmospheric processes and their important role in the climate system</b>

The atmosphere is critical to climate change. It can amplify shifts in the climate system, and also mitigate them. This primer offers a short, reader-friendly introduction to these atmospheric processes and how they work, written by a leading expert on the subject.

Giving readers an overview of key atmospheric processes, David Randall looks at how our climate system receives energy from the sun and sheds it by emitting infrared radiation back into space. The atmosphere regulates these radiative energy flows and transports energy through weather systems such as thunderstorms, monsoons, hurricanes, and winter storms. Randall explains how these processes work, and also how precipitation, cloud formation, and other phase changes of water strongly influence weather and climate. He discusses how atmospheric feedbacks affect climate change, how the large-scale atmospheric circulation works, how predicting the weather and the climate are fundamentally different challenges, and much more. This is the ideal introduction for students and nonspecialists. No prior experience in atmospheric science is needed, only basic college physics.

Authoritative and concise, <i>Atmosphere, Clouds, and Climate</i> features a glossary of terms, suggestions for further reading, and easy-to-follow explanations of a few key equations. This accessible primer is the essential introduction to atmospheric processes and the vital role they play in our climate system.
9781400844562 The 5 Elements of Effective Thinking Burger, Edward B.,Starbird, Michael   Self-help & personal development, Study & learning skills: general, Learning, Intelligence & reasoning 2012 168 <b>Simple but powerful strategies for increasing your success by improving your thinking</b>

<i>The 5 Elements of Effective Thinking</i> presents practical, lively, and inspiring ways for you to become more successful through better thinking. The idea is simple: You can learn how to think far better by adopting specific strategies. Brilliant people aren't a special breed—they just use their minds differently. By using the straightforward and thought-provoking techniques in <i>The 5 Elements of Effective Thinking</i>, you will regularly find imaginative solutions to difficult challenges, and you will discover new ways of looking at your world and yourself—revealing previously hidden opportunities.

The book offers real-life stories, explicit action items, and concrete methods that allow you to attain a deeper understanding of any issue, exploit the power of failure as a step toward success, develop a habit of creating probing questions, see the world of ideas as an ever-flowing stream of thought, and embrace the uplifting reality that we are all capable of change. No matter who you are, the practical mind-sets introduced in the book will empower you to realize any goal in a more creative, intelligent, and effective manner. Filled with engaging examples that unlock truths about thinking in every walk of life, <i>The 5 Elements of Effective Thinking</i> is written for all who want to reach their fullest potential—including students, parents, teachers, businesspeople, professionals, athletes, artists, leaders, and lifelong learners.

Whenever you are stuck, need a new idea, or want to learn and grow, <i>The 5 Elements of Effective Thinking</i> will inspire and guide you on your way.
9780691209050 Nine Algorithms That Changed the Future MacCormick, John Princeton Science Library 2012 232 <b>Nine revolutionary algorithms that power our computers and smartphones</b>

Every day, we use our computers to perform remarkable feats. A simple web search picks out a handful of relevant needles from the world's biggest haystack. Uploading a photo to Facebook transmits millions of pieces of information over numerous error-prone network links, yet somehow a perfect copy of the photo arrives intact. Without even knowing it, we use public-key cryptography to transmit secret information like credit card numbers, and we use digital signatures to verify the identity of the websites we visit. How do our computers perform these tasks with such ease? John MacCormick answers this question in language anyone can understand, using vivid examples to explain the fundamental tricks behind nine computer algorithms that power our PCs, tablets, and smartphones.
9781400846733 Topological Insulators and Topological Superconductors Bernevig, B. Andrei   Condensed matter physics (liquid state & solid state physics), Electricity,  electromagnetism & magnetism 2013 264 This graduate-level textbook is the first pedagogical synthesis of the field of topological insulators and superconductors, one of the most exciting areas of research in condensed matter physics. Presenting the latest developments, while providing all the calculations necessary for a self-contained and complete description of the discipline, it is ideal for graduate students and researchers preparing to work in this area, and it will be an essential reference both within and outside the classroom.

  The book begins with simple concepts such as Berry phases, Dirac fermions, Hall conductance and its link to topology, and the Hofstadter problem of lattice electrons in a magnetic field. It moves on to explain topological phases of matter such as Chern insulators, two- and three-dimensional topological insulators, and Majorana p-wave wires. Additionally, the book covers zero modes on vortices in topological superconductors, time-reversal topological superconductors, and topological responses/field theory and topological indices. The book also analyzes recent topics in condensed matter theory and concludes by surveying active subfields of research such as insulators with point-group symmetries and the stability of topological semimetals. Problems at the end of each chapter offer opportunities to test knowledge and engage with frontier research issues. <i>Topological Insulators and Topological Superconductors</i> will provide graduate students and researchers with the physical understanding and mathematical tools needed to embark on research in this rapidly evolving field.
9781400846375 Paleoclimate Bender, Michael L. Princeton Primers in Climate Earth sciences, Meteorology & climatology, Historical geology, Palaeontology 2013 320 Earth's climate has undergone dramatic changes over the geologic timescale. At one extreme, Earth has been glaciated from the poles to the equator for periods that may have lasted millions of years. At another, temperatures were once so warm that the Canadian Arctic was heavily forested and large dinosaurs lived on Antarctica. Paleoclimatology is the study of such changes and their causes. Studying Earth's long-term climate history gives scientists vital clues about anthropogenic global warming and how climate is affected by human endeavor.

 In this book, Michael Bender, an internationally recognized authority on paleoclimate, provides a concise, comprehensive, and sophisticated introduction to the subject. After briefly describing the major periods in Earth history to provide geologic context, he discusses controls on climate and how the record of past climate is determined. The heart of the book then proceeds chronologically, introducing the history of climate changes over millions of years--its patterns and major transitions, and why average global temperature has varied so much. The book ends with a discussion of the Holocene (the past 10,000 years) and by putting manmade climate change in the context of paleoclimate.

 The most up-to-date overview on the subject, <i>Paleoclimate</i> provides an ideal introduction to undergraduates, nonspecialist scientists, and general readers with a scientific background.
9781400848232 Planetary Climates Ingersoll, Andrew Princeton Primers in Climate Meteorology & climatology, Space science 2013 288 This concise, sophisticated introduction to planetary climates explains the global physical and chemical processes that determine climate on any planet or major planetary satellite--from Mercury to Neptune and even large moons such as Saturn's Titan. Although the climates of other worlds are extremely diverse, the chemical and physical processes that shape their dynamics are the same. As this book makes clear, the better we can understand how various planetary climates formed and evolved, the better we can understand Earth's climate history and future.
9781400844647 Heart of Darkness Ostriker, Jeremiah P.,Mitton, Simon Science Essentials Popular science, Astronomy,  space & time, Cosmology & the universe 2013 328 <b>Humanity's ongoing quest to unlock the secrets of dark matter and dark energy</b>

<i>Heart of Darkness</i> describes the incredible saga of humankind's quest to unravel the deepest secrets of the universe. Over the past thirty years, scientists have learned that two little-understood components—dark matter and dark energy—comprise most of the known cosmos, explain the growth of all cosmic structure and hold the key to the universe's fate. The story of how evidence for the so-called "Lambda-Cold Dark Matter" model of cosmology has been gathered by generations of scientists throughout the world is told here by one of the pioneers of the field, Jeremiah Ostriker, and his coauthor Simon Mitton.

From humankind's early attempts to comprehend Earth's place in the solar system, to astronomers' exploration of the Milky Way galaxy and the realm of the nebulae beyond, to the detection of the primordial fluctuations of energy from which all subsequent structure developed, this book explains the physics and the history of how the current model of our universe arose and has passed every test hurled at it by the skeptics. Throughout this rich story, an essential theme is emphasized: how three aspects of rational inquiry—the application of direct measurement and observation, the introduction of mathematical modeling, and the requirement that hypotheses should be testable and verifiable—guide scientific progress and underpin our modern cosmological paradigm.

This monumental puzzle is far from complete, however, as scientists confront the mysteries of the ultimate causes of cosmic structure formation and the real nature and origin of dark matter and dark energy.
9781400845590 The Physics of Neutrinos Barger, Vernon,Marfatia, Danny,Whisnant, Kerry   Particle & high-energy physics, Quantum physics (quantum mechanics & quantum field theory), Nuclear physics, Astrophysics 2013 240 The physics of neutrinos--uncharged elementary particles that are key to helping us better understand the nature of our universe--is one of the most exciting frontiers of modern science. This book provides a comprehensive overview of neutrino physics today and explores promising new avenues of inquiry that could lead to future breakthroughs.

 <i>The Physics of Neutrinos</i> begins with a concise history of the field and a tutorial on the fundamental properties of neutrinos, and goes on to discuss how the three neutrino types interchange identities as they propagate from their sources to detectors. The book shows how studies of neutrinos produced by such phenomena as cosmic rays in the atmosphere and nuclear reactions in the solar interior provide striking evidence that neutrinos have mass, and it traces our astounding progress in deciphering the baffling experimental findings involving neutrinos. The discovery of neutrino mass offers the first indication of a new kind of physics that goes beyond the Standard Model of elementary particles, and this book considers the unanticipated patterns in the masses and mixings of neutrinos in the framework of proposed new theoretical models.

 <i>The Physics of Neutrinos</i> maps out the ambitious future facilities and experiments that will advance our knowledge of neutrinos, and explains why the way forward in solving the outstanding questions in neutrino science will require the collective efforts of particle physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics, and cosmology.
9780691202204 Trigonometric Delights Maor, Eli Princeton Science Library Popular science, History of mathematics, Trigonometry 2013 256 <b>A fun, entertaining exploration of the ideas and people behind the growth of trigonometry</b>

Trigonometry has a reputation as a dry, difficult branch of mathematics, a glorified form of geometry complicated by tedious computation. In <i>Trigonometric Delights</i>, Eli Maor dispels this view. Rejecting the usual descriptions of sine, cosine, and their trigonometric relatives, he brings the subject to life in a compelling blend of history, biography, and mathematics. From the proto-trigonometry of the Egyptian pyramid builders and the first true trigonometry developed by Greek astronomers, to the epicycles and hypocycles of the toy Spirograph, Maor presents both a survey of the main elements of trigonometry and a unique account of its vital contribution to science and social growth. A tapestry of stories, curiosities, insights, and illustrations, <i>Trigonometric Delights </i>irrevocably changes how we see this essential mathematical discipline.
9781400849888 Oxygen Canfield, Donald E. Science Essentials Popular science, Earth sciences, Meteorology & climatology 2014 216 <b>The remarkable scientific story of how Earth became an oxygenated planet</b>

The air we breathe is twenty-one percent oxygen, an amount higher than on any other known world. While we may take our air for granted, Earth was not always an oxygenated planet. How did it become this way? Donald Canfield—one of the world's leading authorities on geochemistry, earth history, and the early oceans—covers this vast history, emphasizing its relationship to the evolution of life and the evolving chemistry of the Earth. Canfield guides readers through the various lines of scientific evidence, considers some of the wrong turns and dead ends along the way, and highlights the scientists and researchers who have made key discoveries in the field. Showing how Earth’s atmosphere developed over time, <i>Oxygen</i> takes readers on a remarkable journey through the history of the oxygenation of our planet.
9781400848225 Gauge Theories of the Strong, Weak, and Electromagnetic Interactions Quigg, Chris Quantum physics (quantum mechanics & quantum field theory), Electricity,  electromagnetism & magnetism 2014 496 <b>A thoroughly revised edition of a landmark textbook on gauge theories and their applications to particle physics</b>

This completely revised and updated graduate-level textbook is an ideal introduction to gauge theories and their applications to high-energy particle physics, and takes an in-depth look at two new laws of nature—quantum chromodynamics and the electroweak theory. From quantum electrodynamics through unified theories of the interactions among leptons and quarks, Chris Quigg examines the logic and structure behind gauge theories and the experimental underpinnings of today's theories. Quigg emphasizes how we know what we know, and in the era of the Large Hadron Collider, his insightful survey of the standard model and the next great questions for particle physics makes for compelling reading.

The brand-new edition shows how the electroweak theory developed in conversation with experiment. Featuring a wide-ranging treatment of electroweak symmetry breaking, the physics of the Higgs boson, and the importance of the 1-TeV scale, the book moves beyond established knowledge and investigates the path toward unified theories of strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions. Explicit calculations and diverse exercises allow readers to derive the consequences of these theories. Extensive annotated bibliographies accompany each chapter, amplify points of conceptual or technical interest, introduce further applications, and lead readers to the research literature. Students and seasoned practitioners will profit from the text's current insights, and specialists wishing to understand gauge theories will find the book an ideal reference for self-study.<ul><li>Brand-new edition of a landmark text introducing gauge theories</li><li>Consistent attention to how we know what we know</li><li>Explicit calculations develop concepts and engage with experiment</li><li>Interesting and diverse problems sharpen skills and ideas</li><li>Extensive annotated bibliographies</li></ul>
9781400848904 Introduction to Modeling Convection in Planets and Stars Glatzmaier, Gary A. Princeton Series in Astrophysics Astrophysics, Mathematical modelling, Plasma physics 2014 328 This book provides readers with the skills they need to write computer codes that simulate convection, internal gravity waves, and magnetic field generation in the interiors and atmospheres of rotating planets and stars. Using a teaching method perfected in the classroom, Gary Glatzmaier begins by offering a step-by-step guide on how to design codes for simulating nonlinear time-dependent thermal convection in a two-dimensional box using Fourier expansions in the horizontal direction and finite differences in the vertical direction. He then describes how to implement more efficient and accurate numerical methods and more realistic geometries in two and three dimensions. In the third part of the book, Glatzmaier demonstrates how to incorporate more sophisticated physics, including the effects of magnetic field, density stratification, and rotation.

 Featuring numerous exercises throughout, this is an ideal textbook for students and an essential resource for researchers.

 <li>Describes how to create codes that simulate the internal dynamics of planets and stars</li>
 <li>Builds on basic concepts and simple methods</li>
 <li>Shows how to improve the efficiency and accuracy of the numerical methods</li>
 <li>Describes more relevant geometries and boundary conditions</li>
 <li>Demonstrates how to incorporate more sophisticated physics</li>
9781400850075 The Cosmic Cocktail Freese, Katherine Science Essentials Popular science, Astrophysics 2014 264 <b>The inside story of the epic quest to solve the mystery of dark matter</b>

The ordinary atoms that make up the known universe—from our bodies and the air we breathe to the planets and stars—constitute only 5 percent of all matter and energy in the cosmos. The rest is known as dark matter and dark energy, because their precise identities are unknown. <i>The Cosmic Cocktail</i> is the inside story of the epic quest to solve one of the most compelling enigmas of modern science—what is the universe made of?—told by one of today's foremost pioneers in the study of dark matter.

Blending cutting-edge science with her own behind-the-scenes insights as a leading researcher in the field, acclaimed theoretical physicist Katherine Freese recounts the hunt for dark matter, from the discoveries of visionary scientists like Fritz Zwicky—the Swiss astronomer who coined the term "dark matter" in 1933—to the deluge of data today from underground laboratories, satellites in space, and the Large Hadron Collider. Theorists contend that dark matter consists of fundamental particles known as WIMPs, or weakly interacting massive particles. Billions of them pass through our bodies every second without us even realizing it, yet their gravitational pull is capable of whirling stars and gas at breakneck speeds around the centers of galaxies, and bending light from distant bright objects. Freese describes the larger-than-life characters and clashing personalities behind the race to identify these elusive particles.

Many cosmologists believe we are on the verge of solving the mystery. <i>The Cosmic Cocktail</i> provides the foundation needed to fully fathom this epochal moment in humankind’s quest to understand the universe.
9781400852741 Topics in Quaternion Linear Algebra Rodman, Leiba Princeton Series in Applied Mathematics Algebra, Complex analysis,  complex variables, Calculus & mathematical analysis, Physics, Computer science, Engineering: general 2014 384 Quaternions are a number system that has become increasingly useful for representing the rotations of objects in three-dimensional space and has important applications in theoretical and applied mathematics, physics, computer science, and engineering. This is the first book to provide a systematic, accessible, and self-contained exposition of quaternion linear algebra. It features previously unpublished research results with complete proofs and many open problems at various levels, as well as more than 200 exercises to facilitate use by students and instructors. Applications presented in the book include numerical ranges, invariant semidefinite subspaces, differential equations with symmetries, and matrix equations.

Designed for researchers and students across a variety of disciplines, the book can be read by anyone with a background in linear algebra, rudimentary complex analysis, and some multivariable calculus. Instructors will find it useful as a complementary text for undergraduate linear algebra courses or as a basis for a graduate course in linear algebra. The open problems can serve as research projects for undergraduates, topics for graduate students, or problems to be tackled by professional research mathematicians. The book is also an invaluable reference tool for researchers in fields where techniques based on quaternion analysis are used.
9781400852000 The Fascinating World of Graph Theory Benjamin, Arthur,Chartrand, Gary,Zhang, Ping Popular science, Combinatorics & graph theory, Applied mathematics 2015 344 <b>The history, formulas, and most famous puzzles of graph theory</b>

Graph theory goes back several centuries and revolves around the study of graphs—mathematical structures showing relations between objects. With applications in biology, computer science, transportation science, and other areas, graph theory encompasses some of the most beautiful formulas in mathematics—and some of its most famous problems. <i>The Fascinating World of Graph Theory</i> explores the questions and puzzles that have been studied, and often solved, through graph theory. This book looks at graph theory's development and the vibrant individuals responsible for the field's growth. Introducing fundamental concepts, the authors explore a diverse plethora of classic problems such as the Lights Out Puzzle, and each chapter contains math exercises for readers to savor. An eye-opening journey into the world of graphs, <i>The Fascinating World of Graph Theory</i> offers exciting problem-solving possibilities for mathematics and beyond.
9781400852246 The Two-Mile Time Machine Alley, Richard B. Princeton Science Library Earth sciences, Meteorology & climatology, Climate change 2015 248 In the 1990s Richard B. Alley and his colleagues made headlines with the discovery that the last ice age came to an abrupt end over a period of only three years. In <i>The Two-Mile Time Machine</i>, Alley tells the fascinating history of global climate changes as revealed by reading the annual rings of ice from cores drilled in Greenland. He explains that humans have experienced an unusually temperate climate compared to the wild fluctuations that characterized most of prehistory. He warns that our comfortable environment could come to an end in a matter of years and tells us what we need to know in order to understand and perhaps overcome climate changes in the future.

In a new preface, the author weighs in on whether our understanding of global climate change has altered in the years since the book was first published, what the latest research tells us, and what he is working on next.
9781400865673 Creating Symmetry Farris, Frank A. Popular science, Mathematics, Functional analysis & transforms, Differential calculus & equations, Groups & group theory 2015 248 <b>A step-by-step illustrated introduction to the astounding mathematics of symmetry</b>

This lavishly illustrated book provides a hands-on, step-by-step introduction to the intriguing mathematics of symmetry. Instead of breaking up patterns into blocks—a sort of potato-stamp method—Frank Farris offers a completely new waveform approach that enables you to create an endless variety of rosettes, friezes, and wallpaper patterns: dazzling art images where the beauty of nature meets the precision of mathematics.

Featuring more than 100 stunning color illustrations and requiring only a modest background in math, <i>Creating Symmetry</i> begins by addressing the enigma of a simple curve, whose curious symmetry seems unexplained by its formula. Farris describes how complex numbers unlock the mystery, and how they lead to the next steps on an engaging path to constructing waveforms. He explains how to devise waveforms for each of the 17 possible wallpaper types, and then guides you through a host of other fascinating topics in symmetry, such as color-reversing patterns, three-color patterns, polyhedral symmetry, and hyperbolic symmetry. Along the way, Farris demonstrates how to marry waveforms with photographic images to construct beautiful symmetry patterns as he gradually familiarizes you with more advanced mathematics, including group theory, functional analysis, and partial differential equations. As you progress through the book, you'll learn how to create breathtaking art images of your own.

Fun, accessible, and challenging, <i>Creating Symmetry</i> features numerous examples and exercises throughout, as well as engaging discussions of the history behind the mathematics presented in the book.
9781400865680 The Proof and the Pudding Henle, Jim   Mathematics, Applied mathematics, General cookery & recipes 2015 176 <b>Tantalizing math puzzles and cooking recipes that show how mathematical thinking is like the culinary arts</b>

Tie on your apron and step into Jim Henle's kitchen as he demonstrates how two equally savory pursuits—cooking and mathematics—have more in common than you realize. A tasty dish for gourmets of popular math, <i>The Proof and the Pudding</i> offers a witty and flavorful blend of mathematical treats and gastronomic delights that reveal how life in the mathematical world is tantalizingly similar to life in the kitchen.

Take a tricky Sudoku puzzle and a cake that fell. Henle shows you that the best way to deal with cooking disasters is also the best way to solve math problems. Or take an L-shaped billiard table and a sudden desire for Italian potstickers. He explains how preferring geometry over algebra (or algebra over geometry) is just like preferring a California roll to chicken tikka masala. Do you want to know why playfulness is rampant in math and cooking? Or how to turn stinky cheese into an awesome ice cream treat? It’s all here: original math and original recipes plus the mathematical equivalents of vegetarianism, Asian fusion, and celebrity chefs.

Pleasurable and lighthearted, <i>The Proof and the Pudding</i> is a feast for the intellect as well as the palate.
9781400865697 Single Digits Chamberland, Marc Mathematics, Mathematical logic, Numerical analysis, Number theory, Applied mathematics 2015 240 <b>The remarkable properties of the numbers one through nine</b>

In <i>Single Digits</i>, Marc Chamberland takes readers on a fascinating exploration of small numbers, from one to nine, looking at their history, applications, and connections to various areas of mathematics, including number theory, geometry, chaos theory, numerical analysis, and mathematical physics. For instance, why do eight perfect card shuffles leave a standard deck of cards unchanged? And, are there really "six degrees of separation" between all pairs of people? Chamberland explores these questions and covers vast numerical territory, such as illustrating the ways that the number three connects to chaos theory, the number of guards needed to protect an art gallery, problematic election results and so much more. The book's short sections can be read independently and digested in bite-sized chunks—especially good for learning about the Ham Sandwich Theorem and the Pizza Theorem. Appealing to high school and college students, professional mathematicians, and those mesmerized by patterns, this book shows that single digits offer a plethora of possibilities that readers can count on.
9781400865727 Life's Engines Falkowski, Paul G. Science Essentials Popular science, Microbiology (non-medical), Applied ecology, Biodiversity, Ecological science,  the Biosphere 2015 224 <b>The marvelous microbes that made life on Earth possible and support our very existence</b>

For almost four billion years, microbes had the primordial oceans all to themselves. The stewards of Earth, these organisms transformed the chemistry of our planet to make it habitable for plants, animals, and us. <i>Life's Engines</i> takes readers deep into the microscopic world to explore how these marvelous creatures made life on Earth possible—and how human life today would cease to exist without them.

Paul Falkowski looks "under the hood" of microbes to find the engines of life, the actual working parts that do the biochemical heavy lifting for every living organism on Earth. With insight and humor, he explains how these miniature engines are built—and how they have been appropriated by and assembled like Lego sets within every creature that walks, swims, or flies. Falkowski shows how evolution works to maintain this core machinery of life, and how we and other animals are veritable conglomerations of microbes.

A vibrantly entertaining book about the microbes that support our very existence,<i> Life's Engines</i> will inspire wonder about these elegantly complex nanomachines that have driven life since its origin. It also issues a timely warning about the dangers of tinkering with that machinery to make it more "efficient" at meeting the ever-growing demands of humans in the coming century.
9781400865765 The Road to Relativity Gutfreund, Hanoch,Renn, Jürgen Relativity physics, History of science 2015 264 <b>An annotated facsimile edition of Einstein's handwritten manuscript on the foundations of general relativity</b>

This richly annotated facsimile edition of "The Foundation of General Relativity" introduces a new generation of readers to Albert Einstein's theory of gravitation. Written in 1915, this remarkable document is a watershed in the history of physics and an enduring testament to the elegance and precision of Einstein's thought. Presented here is a beautiful facsimile of Einstein's original handwritten manuscript, along with its English translation and an insightful page-by-page commentary that places the work in historical and scientific context. Hanoch Gutfreund and Jürgen Renn's concise introduction traces Einstein's intellectual odyssey from special to general relativity, and their essay "The Charm of a Manuscript" provides a delightful meditation on the varied afterlife of Einstein's text. Featuring a foreword by John Stachel, this handsome edition also includes a biographical glossary of the figures discussed in the book, a comprehensive bibliography, suggestions for further reading, and numerous photos and illustrations throughout.
9781400865772 The Physicist and the Philosopher Canales, Jimena   History of science, Philosophy of science, Relativity physics, Philosophy: metaphysics & ontology 2015 488 <b>The explosive debate that transformed our views about time and scientific truth</b>

On April 6, 1922, in Paris, Albert Einstein and Henri Bergson publicly debated the nature of time. Einstein considered Bergson's theory of time to be a soft, psychological notion, irreconcilable with the quantitative realities of physics. Bergson, who gained fame as a philosopher by arguing that time should not be understood exclusively through the lens of science, criticized Einstein's theory of time for being a metaphysics grafted on to science, one that ignored the intuitive aspects of time. <i>The Physicist and the Philosopher</i> tells the remarkable story of how this explosive debate transformed our understanding of time and drove a rift between science and the humanities that persists today.

Jimena Canales introduces readers to the revolutionary ideas of Einstein and Bergson, describes how they dramatically collided in Paris, and traces how this clash of worldviews reverberated across the twentieth century. She shows how it provoked responses from figures such as Bertrand Russell and Martin Heidegger, and carried repercussions for American pragmatism, logical positivism, phenomenology, and quantum mechanics. Canales explains how the new technologies of the period—such as wristwatches, radio, and film—helped to shape people’s conceptions of time and further polarized the public debate. She also discusses how Bergson and Einstein, toward the end of their lives, each reflected on his rival’s legacy—Bergson during the Nazi occupation of Paris and Einstein in the context of the first hydrogen bomb explosion.

<i>The Physicist and the Philosopher</i> is a magisterial and revealing account that shows how scientific truth was placed on trial in a divided century marked by a new sense of time.
9781400865918 Analytical Psychology in Exile Jung, C. G.,Neumann, Erich Philemon Foundation Series Analytical & Jungian psychology 2015 496 <b>Two giants of twentieth-century psychology in dialogue</b>

C. G. Jung and Erich Neumann first met in 1933, at a seminar Jung was conducting in Berlin. Jung was fifty-seven years old and internationally acclaimed for his own brand of psychotherapy. Neumann, twenty-eight, had just finished his studies in medicine. The two men struck up a correspondence that would continue until Neumann's death in 1960. A lifelong Zionist, Neumann fled Nazi Germany with his family and settled in Palestine in 1934, where he would become the founding father of analytical psychology in the future state of Israel.

Presented here in English for the first time are letters that provide a rare look at the development of Jung’s psychological theories from the 1930s onward as well as the emerging self-confidence of another towering twentieth-century intellectual who was often described as Jung’s most talented student. Neumann was one of the few correspondence partners of Jung’s who was able to challenge him intellectually and personally. These letters shed light on not only Jung’s political attitude toward Nazi Germany, his alleged anti-Semitism, and his psychological theory of fascism, but also his understanding of Jewish psychology and mysticism. They affirm Neumann’s importance as a leading psychologist of his time and paint a fascinating picture of the psychological impact of immigration on the German Jewish intellectuals who settled in Palestine and helped to create the state of Israel.

Featuring Martin Liebscher’s authoritative introduction and annotations, this volume documents one of the most important intellectual relationships in the history of analytical psychology.
9781400866045 Life on a Young Planet Knoll, Andrew H. Princeton Science Library Popular science, Evolution, Biology,  life sciences, Palaeontology, Geology & the lithosphere 2015 296 Australopithecines, dinosaurs, trilobites--such fossils conjure up images of lost worlds filled with vanished organisms. But in the full history of life, ancient animals, even the trilobites, form only the half-billion-year tip of a nearly four-billion-year iceberg. Andrew Knoll explores the deep history of life from its origins on a young planet to the incredible Cambrian explosion, presenting a compelling new explanation for the emergence of biological novelty.

 The very latest discoveries in paleontology--many of them made by the author and his students--are integrated with emerging insights from molecular biology and earth system science to forge a broad understanding of how the biological diversity that surrounds us came to be. Moving from Siberia to Namibia to the Bahamas, Knoll shows how life and environment have evolved together through Earth's history. Innovations in biology have helped shape our air and oceans, and, just as surely, environmental change has influenced the course of evolution, repeatedly closing off opportunities for some species while opening avenues for others.

 Readers go into the field to confront fossils, enter the lab to discern the inner workings of cells, and alight on Mars to ask how our terrestrial experience can guide exploration for life beyond our planet. Along the way, Knoll brings us up-to-date on some of science's hottest questions, from the oldest fossils and claims of life beyond the Earth to the hypothesis of global glaciation and Knoll's own unifying concept of ''permissive ecology.''

 In laying bare Earth's deepest biological roots, <i>Life on a Young Planet</i> helps us understand our own place in the universe--and our responsibility as stewards of a world four billion years in the making.

In a new preface, Knoll describes how the field has broadened and deepened in the decade since the book's original publication.
9781400866540 The Sun's Influence on Climate Haigh, Joanna D.,Cargill, Peter Princeton Primers in Climate Earth sciences, Meteorology & climatology 2015 216 The Earth's climate system depends entirely on the Sun for its energy. Solar radiation warms the atmosphere and is fundamental to atmospheric composition, while the distribution of solar heating across the planet produces global wind patterns and contributes to the formation of clouds, storms, and rainfall. <i>The Sun’s Influence on Climate</i> provides an unparalleled introduction to this vitally important relationship.

This accessible primer covers the basic properties of the Earth’s climate system, the structure and behavior of the Sun, and the absorption of solar radiation in the atmosphere. It explains how solar activity varies and how these variations affect the Earth’s environment, from long-term paleoclimate effects to century timescales in the context of human-induced climate change, and from signals of the 11-year sunspot cycle to the impacts of solar emissions on space weather in our planet’s upper atmosphere.

Written by two of the leading authorities on the subject, <i>The Sun’s Influence on Climate</i> is an essential primer for students and nonspecialists alike.
9781400866588 An Introduction to Benford's Law Berger, Arno,Hill, Theodore P.   Probability & statistics, Mathematics, Applied mathematics, Mathematical logic 2015 256 This book provides the first comprehensive treatment of Benford's law, the surprising logarithmic distribution of significant digits discovered in the late nineteenth century. Establishing the mathematical and statistical principles that underpin this intriguing phenomenon, the text combines up-to-date theoretical results with overviews of the law’s colorful history, rapidly growing body of empirical evidence, and wide range of applications.

<i>An Introduction to Benford’s Law</i> begins with basic facts about significant digits, Benford functions, sequences, and random variables, including tools from the theory of uniform distribution. After introducing the scale-, base-, and sum-invariance characterizations of the law, the book develops the significant-digit properties of both deterministic and stochastic processes, such as iterations of functions, powers of matrices, differential equations, and products, powers, and mixtures of random variables. Two concluding chapters survey the finitely additive theory and the flourishing applications of Benford’s law.

Carefully selected diagrams, tables, and close to 150 examples illuminate the main concepts throughout. The text includes many open problems, in addition to dozens of new basic theorems and all the main references. A distinguishing feature is the emphasis on the surprising ubiquity and robustness of the significant-digit law. This text can serve as both a primary reference and a basis for seminars and courses.
9781400866595 Benford's Law Mathematics, Applied mathematics, Mathematical logic, Probability & statistics 2015 464 Benford's law states that the leading digits of many data sets are not uniformly distributed from one through nine, but rather exhibit a profound bias. This bias is evident in everything from electricity bills and street addresses to stock prices, population numbers, mortality rates, and the lengths of rivers. Here, Steven Miller brings together many of the world’s leading experts on Benford’s law to demonstrate the many useful techniques that arise from the law, show how truly multidisciplinary it is, and encourage collaboration.

Beginning with the general theory, the contributors explain the prevalence of the bias, highlighting explanations for when systems should and should not follow Benford’s law and how quickly such behavior sets in. They go on to discuss important applications in disciplines ranging from accounting and economics to psychology and the natural sciences. The contributors describe how Benford’s law has been successfully used to expose fraud in elections, medical tests, tax filings, and financial reports. Additionally, numerous problems, background materials, and technical details are available online to help instructors create courses around the book.

Emphasizing common challenges and techniques across the disciplines, this accessible book shows how Benford’s law can serve as a productive meeting ground for researchers and practitioners in diverse fields.
9781400866618 Action-minimizing Methods in Hamiltonian Dynamics (MN-50) Sorrentino, Alfonso Mathematical Notes Applied mathematics, Dynamics & statics, Mathematical logic 2015 128 John Mather's seminal works in Hamiltonian dynamics represent some of the most important contributions to our understanding of the complex balance between stable and unstable motions in classical mechanics. His novel approach—known as Aubry-Mather theory—singles out the existence of special orbits and invariant measures of the system, which possess a very rich dynamical and geometric structure. In particular, the associated invariant sets play a leading role in determining the global dynamics of the system. This book provides a comprehensive introduction to Mather’s theory, and can serve as an interdisciplinary bridge for researchers and students from different fields seeking to acquaint themselves with the topic.

Starting with the mathematical background from which Mather’s theory was born, Alfonso Sorrentino first focuses on the core questions the theory aims to answer—notably the destiny of broken invariant KAM tori and the onset of chaos—and describes how it can be viewed as a natural counterpart of KAM theory. He achieves this by guiding readers through a detailed illustrative example, which also provides the basis for introducing the main ideas and concepts of the general theory. Sorrentino then describes the whole theory and its subsequent developments and applications in their full generality.

Shedding new light on John Mather’s revolutionary ideas, this book is certain to become a foundational text in the modern study of Hamiltonian systems.
9781400866625 Mathematical Methods in Elasticity Imaging Ammari, Habib,Bretin, Elie,Garnier, Josselin,Kang, Hyeonbae,Lee, Hyundae,Wahab, Abdul Princeton Series in Applied Mathematics Applied mathematics, Mechanical engineering & materials, Physics, Stochastics 2015 240 This book is the first to comprehensively explore elasticity imaging and examines recent, important developments in asymptotic imaging, modeling, and analysis of deterministic and stochastic elastic wave propagation phenomena. It derives the best possible functional images for small inclusions and cracks within the context of stability and resolution, and introduces a topological derivative–based imaging framework for detecting elastic inclusions in the time-harmonic regime. For imaging extended elastic inclusions, accurate optimal control methodologies are designed and the effects of uncertainties of the geometric or physical parameters on stability and resolution properties are evaluated. In particular, the book shows how localized damage to a mechanical structure affects its dynamic characteristics, and how measured eigenparameters are linked to elastic inclusion or crack location, orientation, and size. Demonstrating a novel method for identifying, locating, and estimating inclusions and cracks in elastic structures, the book opens possibilities for a mathematical and numerical framework for elasticity imaging of nanoparticles and cellular structures.
9781400885527 Mathematics without Apologies Harris, Michael   Popular science, Philosophy of mathematics, History of mathematics, Memoirs 2015 464 <b>An insightful reflection on the mathematical soul</b>

What do pure mathematicians do, and why do they do it? Looking beyond the conventional answers—for the sake of truth, beauty, and practical applications—this book offers an eclectic panorama of the lives and values and hopes and fears of mathematicians in the twenty-first century, assembling material from a startlingly diverse assortment of scholarly, journalistic, and pop culture sources.

Drawing on his personal experiences and obsessions as well as the thoughts and opinions of mathematicians from Archimedes and Omar Khayyám to such contemporary giants as Alexander Grothendieck and Robert Langlands, Michael Harris reveals the charisma and romance of mathematics as well as its darker side. In this portrait of mathematics as a community united around a set of common intellectual, ethical, and existential challenges, he touches on a wide variety of questions, such as: Are mathematicians to blame for the 2008 financial crisis? How can we talk about the ideas we were born too soon to understand? And how should you react if you are asked to explain number theory at a dinner party?

Disarmingly candid, relentlessly intelligent, and richly entertaining, <i>Mathematics without Apologies</i> takes readers on an unapologetic guided tour of the mathematical life, from the philosophy and sociology of mathematics to its reflections in film and popular music, with detours through the mathematical and mystical traditions of Russia, India, medieval Islam, the Bronx, and beyond.
9780691209562 How to Clone a Mammoth Shapiro, Beth Princeton Science Library 2015 256 <b>An insider's view on bringing extinct species back to life</b>

Could extinct species, like mammoths and passenger pigeons, be brought back to life? In<i> How to Clone a Mammoth</i>, Beth Shapiro, an evolutionary biologist and pioneer in ancient DNA research, addresses this intriguing question by walking readers through the astonishing and controversial process of de-extinction. From deciding which species should be restored to anticipating how revived populations might be overseen in the wild, Shapiro vividly explores the extraordinary cutting-edge science that is being used to resurrect the past. Considering de-extinction's practical benefits and ethical challenges, Shapiro argues that the overarching goal should be the revitalization and stabilization of contemporary ecosystems. Looking at the very real and compelling science behind an idea once seen as science fiction, <i>How to Clone a Mammoth</i> demonstrates how de-extinction will redefine conservation's future.
9781400866632 Leonhard Euler Calinger, Ronald S.   Biography: general, Mathematics, History of mathematics, Western philosophy: Enlightenment, History of science 2016 696 <b>An acclaimed biography of the Enlightenment's greatest mathematician</b>

This is the first full-scale biography of Leonhard Euler (1707–83), one of the greatest mathematicians and theoretical physicists of all time. In this comprehensive and authoritative account, Ronald Calinger connects the story of Euler's eventful life to the astonishing achievements that place him in the company of Archimedes, Newton, and Gauss. Drawing chiefly on Euler’s massive published works and correspondence, which fill more than eighty volumes so far, this biography sets Euler’s work in its multilayered context—personal, intellectual, institutional, political, cultural, religious, and social. It is a story of nearly incessant accomplishment, from Euler’s fundamental contributions to almost every area of pure and applied mathematics—especially calculus, number theory, notation, optics, and celestial, rational, and fluid mechanics—to his advancements in shipbuilding, telescopes, ballistics, cartography, chronology, and music theory.

The narrative takes the reader from Euler’s childhood and education in Basel through his first period in St. Petersburg, 1727–41, where he gained a European reputation by solving the Basel problem and systematically developing analytical mechanics. Invited to Berlin by Frederick II, Euler published his famous <i>Introductio in analysin infinitorum</i>, devised continuum mechanics, and proposed a pulse theory of light. Returning to St. Petersburg in 1766, he created the analytical calculus of variations, developed the most precise lunar theory of the time that supported Newton’s dynamics, and published the best-selling <i>Letters to a German Princess</i>—all despite eye problems that ended in near-total blindness. In telling the remarkable story of Euler and how his achievements brought pan-European distinction to the Petersburg and Berlin academies of sciences, the book also demonstrates with new depth and detail the central role of mathematics in the Enlightenment.
9781400874262 Alice's Adventures in Wonderland Carroll, Lewis The arts, History of mathematics, Philosophy of mathematics 2016 136 <b>A stunning anniversary edition of Alice's adventures, illustrated by Salvador Dalí </b>

Commemorating the 150th anniversary of one of the most beloved classics of children's literature, this illustrated edition presents Alice like you’ve never seen her before.

In 1865, Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, an Oxford mathematician and Anglican deacon, published a story about a little girl who tumbles down a rabbit hole. Thus was the world first introduced to Alice and her pseudonymous creator, Lewis Carroll. This beautiful new edition of <i>Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland</i> features rarely seen illustrations by Salvador Dalí that illuminate the surreal yet curiously logical and mathematical realm into which Alice famously falls.

In an informative and wide-ranging introduction, Carroll expert Mark Burstein discusses Dalí’s connections with Carroll, his treatment of the symbolic figure of Alice, and the mathematical nature of Wonderland. In addition, mathematician Thomas Banchoff reflects on the friendship he shared with Dalí and explores the mathematical undercurrents in Dalí’s work.
9781400873289 The Cosmic Web Gott, J. Richard   Popular science, Astrophysics, Astronomical observation: observatories,  equipment & methods, Cosmology & the universe, Galaxies & stars, Science: general issues 2016 272 <b>A gripping first-person account of how scientists came to understand our universe's mysterious structure</b>

J. Richard Gott was among the first cosmologists to propose that the structure of our universe is like a sponge made up of clusters of galaxies intricately connected by filaments of galaxies—a magnificent structure now called the "cosmic web" and mapped extensively by teams of astronomers. Here is his gripping insider's account of how a generation of undaunted theorists and observers solved the mystery of the architecture of our cosmos.

<i>The Cosmic Web</i> begins with modern pioneers of extragalactic astronomy, such as Edwin Hubble and Fritz Zwicky. It goes on to describe how, during the Cold War, the American school of cosmology favored a model of the universe where galaxies resided in isolated clusters, whereas the Soviet school favored a honeycomb pattern of galaxies punctuated by giant, isolated voids. Gott tells the stories of how his own path to a solution began with a high-school science project when he was eighteen, and how he and astronomer Mario Jurič measured the Sloan Great Wall of Galaxies, a filament of galaxies that, at 1.37 billion light-years in length, is one of the largest structures in the universe.

Drawing on Gott’s own experiences working at the frontiers of science with many of today’s leading cosmologists, <i>The Cosmic Web</i> shows how ambitious telescope surveys such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey are transforming our understanding of the cosmos, and how the cosmic web holds vital clues to the origins of the universe and the next trillion years that lie ahead.
9781400874231 The Quotable Feynman Feynman, Richard P. Popular science, Dictionaries of quotations, Biography: general, Biography: science,  technology & medicine, Science: general issues 2016 432 <b>A treasure-trove of illuminating and entertaining quotations from beloved physicist Richard P. Feynman</b>

"Some people say, ‘How can you live without knowing?' I do not know what they mean. I always live without knowing. That is easy. How you get to know is what I want to know."—Richard P. Feynman

Nobel Prize–winning physicist Richard P. Feynman (1918–88) was that rarest of creatures—a towering scientific genius who could make himself understood by anyone and who became as famous for the wit and wisdom of his popular lectures and writings as for his fundamental contributions to science. <i>The Quotable Feynman</i> is a treasure-trove of this revered and beloved scientist's most profound, provocative, humorous, and memorable quotations on a wide range of subjects.

Carefully selected by Richard Feynman's daughter, Michelle Feynman, from his spoken and written legacy, including interviews, lectures, letters, articles, and books, the quotations are arranged under two dozen topics—from art, childhood, discovery, family, imagination, and humor to mathematics, politics, science, religion, and uncertainty. These brief passages—about 500 in all—vividly demonstrate Feynman's astonishing yet playful intelligence, and his almost constitutional inability to be anything other than unconventional, engaging, and inspiring. The result is a unique, illuminating, and enjoyable portrait of Feynman's life and thought that will be cherished by his fans at the same time that it provides an ideal introduction to Feynman for readers new to this intriguing and important thinker.

The book features a foreword in which physicist Brian Cox pays tribute to Feynman and describes how his words reveal his particular genius, a piece in which cellist Yo-Yo Ma shares his memories of Feynman and reflects on his enduring appeal, and a personal preface by Michelle Feynman. It also includes some previously unpublished quotations, a chronology of Richard Feynman's life, some twenty photos of Feynman, and a section of memorable quotations about Feynman from other notable figures.

 <ul><li>Approximately 500 quotations, some of them previously unpublished, arranged by topic</li><li>A foreword by Brian Cox, reflections by Yo-Yo Ma, and a preface by Michelle Feynman</li><li>A chronology of Feynman's life</li><li>Some twenty photos of Feynman</li><li>A section of quotations about Feynman from other notable figures</li></ul>Some notable quotations of Richard P. Feynman:
<ul><li>"The thing that doesn't fit is the most interesting."</li><li>"Thinking is nothing but talking to yourself inside."</li><li>"It is wonderful if you can find something you love to do in your youth which is big enough to sustain your interest through all your adult life. Because, whatever it is, if you do it well enough (and you will, if you truly love it), people will pay you to do what you want to do anyway."</li><li>"I'd hate to die twice. It's so boring."</li></ul>
9781400874286 Searching for the Oldest Stars Frebel, Anna   Popular science, Astronomy,  space & time, Galaxies & stars, Physics 2016 320 <b>A leading astronomer takes readers behind the scenes of the thrilling science of stellar archaeology</b>

Astronomers study the oldest observable stars in the universe in much the same way archaeologists study ancient artifacts on Earth. Anna Frebel takes readers into the far-flung depths of space and time to provide a gripping firsthand account of the cutting-edge science of stellar archaeology. Weaving the latest findings in astronomy with her own compelling insights as one of the world's leading researchers in the field, she explains how sections of the night sky are "excavated" in the hunt for these extremely rare, 13-billion-year-old relic stars and how this astonishing quest is revealing tantalizing new details about the origins and evolution of the cosmos. Along the way, Frebel recounts her own stories of discovery, offering an insider's perspective on this exciting frontier of science.
9781400873364 An Einstein Encyclopedia Calaprice, Alice,Kennefick, Daniel,Schulmann, Robert Popular science, Quantum physics (quantum mechanics & quantum field theory), Relativity physics, Encyclopaedias & reference works, Biography: science,  technology & medicine 2016 376 <b>The complete guide to everything you ever wanted to know about Einstein</b>

This is the single most complete guide to Albert Einstein's life and work for students, researchers, and browsers alike. Written by three leading Einstein scholars who draw on their combined wealth of expertise gained during their work on the Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, this authoritative and accessible reference features more than one hundred entries and is divided into three parts covering the personal, scientific, and public spheres of Einstein’s life.

<i>An Einstein Encyclopedia</i> contains entries on Einstein’s birth and death, family and romantic relationships, honors and awards, educational institutions where he studied and worked, citizenships and immigration to America, hobbies and travels, plus the people he befriended and the history of his archives and the Einstein Papers Project. Entries on Einstein’s scientific theories provide useful background and context, along with details about his assistants, collaborators, and rivals, as well as physics concepts related to his work. Coverage of Einstein’s role in public life includes entries on his Jewish identity, humanitarian and civil rights involvements, political and educational philosophies, religion, and more.

Commemorating the hundredth anniversary of the theory of general relativity, <i>An Einstein Encyclopedia</i> also includes a chronology of Einstein’s life and appendixes that provide information for further reading and research, including an annotated list of a selection of Einstein’s publications and a review of selected books about Einstein.
<ul><li>More than 100 entries cover the rich details of Einstein’s personal, professional, and public life</li><li>Authoritative entries explain Einstein’s family relationships, scientific achievements, political activities, religious views, and more</li><li>More than 40 illustrations include photos of Einstein and his circle plus archival materials</li><li>A chronology of Einstein’s life, appendixes, and suggestions for further reading provide essential details for further research</li></ul>
9781400873371 The Best Writing on Mathematics 2015   The Best Writing on Mathematics Mathematics, Anthologies (non-poetry) 2016 392 <b>The year's finest writing on mathematics from around the world</b>

This annual anthology brings together the year's finest mathematics writing from around the world. Featuring promising new voices alongside some of the foremost names in the field, <i>The Best Writing on Mathematics 2015</i> makes available to a wide audience many articles not easily found anywhere else—and you don’t need to be a mathematician to enjoy them. These writings offer surprising insights into the nature, meaning, and practice of mathematics today. They delve into the history, philosophy, teaching, and everyday occurrences of math, and take readers behind the scenes of today’s hottest mathematical debates.

Here David Hand explains why we should actually expect unlikely coincidences to happen; Arthur Benjamin and Ethan Brown unveil techniques for improvising custom-made magic number squares; Dana Mackenzie describes how mathematicians are making essential contributions to the development of synthetic biology; Steven Strogatz tells us why it’s worth writing about math for people who are alienated from it; Lisa Rougetet traces the earliest written descriptions of Nim, a popular game of mathematical strategy; Scott Aaronson looks at the unexpected implications of testing numbers for randomness; and much, much more.

In addition to presenting the year’s most memorable writings on mathematics, this must-have anthology includes a bibliography of other notable writings and an introduction by the editor, Mircea Pitici. This book belongs on the shelf of anyone interested in where math has taken us—and where it is headed.
9781400873388 L.A. Math Stein, James D. Crime & mystery, Mathematics 2016 256 <b>A collection of detective stories using math to solve crimes</b>

Move over, Sherlock and Watson—the detective duo to be reckoned with. In the entertaining short-story collection <i>L.A. Math</i>, freelance investigator Freddy Carmichael and his sidekick, Pete Lennox, show how math smarts can crack even the most perplexing cases. Freddy meets colorful personalities throughout Los Angeles and encounters mysterious circumstances from embezzlement and robbery to murder. In each story, Freddy's deductive instincts—and Pete's trusty math skills—solve the crime.

Featuring such glamorous locales as Beverly Hills, Brentwood, Malibu, and Santa Barbara, the fourteen short stories in <i>L.A. Math </i>take Freddy and Pete through various puzzles and challenges. In "A Change of Scene," Freddy has to figure out who is selling corporate secrets to a competitor—so he uses mathematical logic to uncover the culprit. In "The Winning Streak," conditional probability turns the tables on an unscrupulous bookie. And in "Message from a Corpse," the murderer of a wealthy widow is revealed through the rules of compound interest. It’s everything you expect from the City of Angels—A-listers and wannabes, lovers and lawyers, heroes and villains. Readers will not only be entertained, but also gain practical mathematics knowledge, ranging from percentages and probability to set theory, statistics, and the mathematics of elections. For those who want to delve into mathematical subjects further, the book includes a supplementary section with more material.

Filled with intriguing stories, <i>L.A. Math </i>is a treat for lovers of romance, crime, or mathematics.
9781400874477 The Princeton Companion to Applied Mathematics     Reference works, Applied mathematics, Mathematics 2016 1016 <b>The must-have compendium on applied mathematics</b>

This is the most authoritative and accessible single-volume reference book on applied mathematics. Featuring numerous entries by leading experts and organized thematically, it introduces readers to applied mathematics and its uses; explains key concepts; describes important equations, laws, and functions; looks at exciting areas of research; covers modeling and simulation; explores areas of application; and more.

Modeled on the popular <i>Princeton Companion to Mathematics</i>, this volume is an indispensable resource for undergraduate and graduate students, researchers, and practitioners in other disciplines seeking a user-friendly reference book on applied mathematics.
<ul><li>Features nearly 200 entries organized thematically and written by an international team of distinguished contributors</li><li>Presents the major ideas and branches of applied mathematics in a clear and accessible way</li><li>Explains important mathematical concepts, methods, equations, and applications</li><li>Introduces the language of applied mathematics and the goals of applied mathematical research</li><li>Gives a wide range of examples of mathematical modeling</li><li>Covers continuum mechanics, dynamical systems, numerical analysis, discrete and combinatorial mathematics, mathematical physics, and much more</li><li>Explores the connections between applied mathematics and other disciplines</li><li>Includes suggestions for further reading, cross-references, and a comprehensive index</li></ul>
9781400873975 Energy Landscapes, Inherent Structures, and Condensed-Matter Phenomena Stillinger, Frank H. Physics, Condensed matter physics (liquid state & solid state physics), Nuclear physics, Particle & high-energy physics, Chemistry 2016 528 This book presents an authoritative and in-depth treatment of potential energy landscape theory, a powerful analytical approach to describing the atomic and molecular interactions in condensed-matter phenomena. Drawing on the latest developments in the computational modeling of many-body systems, Frank Stillinger applies this approach to a diverse range of substances and systems, including crystals, liquids, glasses and other amorphous solids, polymers, and solvent-suspended biomolecules.

Stillinger focuses on the topography of the multidimensional potential energy hypersurface created when a large number of atoms or molecules simultaneously interact with one another. He explains how the complex landscape topography separates uniquely into individual "basins," each containing a local potential energy minimum or "inherent structure," and he shows how to identify interbasin transition states—saddle points—that reside in shared basin boundaries. Stillinger describes how inherent structures and their basins can be classified and enumerated by depth, curvatures, and other attributes, and how those enumerations lead logically from vastly complicated multidimensional landscapes to properties observed in the real three-dimensional world.

Essential for practitioners and students across a variety of fields, the book illustrates how this approach applies equally to systems whose nuclear motions are intrinsically quantum mechanical or classical, and provides novel strategies for numerical simulation computations directed toward diverse condensed-matter systems.
9781400873999 How Do You Find an Exoplanet? Johnson, John Asher Princeton Frontiers in Physics Astronomical observation: observatories,  equipment & methods, Astrophysics 2016 200 <b>An authoritative primer on the cutting-edge science of planet hunting</b>

Alien worlds have long been a staple of science fiction. But today, thanks to modern astronomical instrumentation and the achievements of many enterprising observational astronomers, the existence of planets outside our solar system—also known as exoplanets—has moved into the realm of science fact. With planet hunters finding ever smaller, more Earth-like worlds, our understanding of the cosmos is forever changed, yet the question of how astronomers make these discoveries often goes unanswered.

<i>How Do You Find an Exoplanet?</i> is an authoritative primer on the four key techniques that today's planet hunters use to detect the feeble signals of planets orbiting distant stars. John Johnson provides you with an insider’s perspective on this exciting cutting-edge science, showing how astronomers detect the wobble of stars caused by the gravitational tug of an orbiting planet, the slight diminution of light caused by a planet eclipsing its star, and the bending of space-time by stars and their planets, and how astronomers even directly take pictures of planets next to their bright central stars.

Accessible to anyone with a basic foundation in college-level physics, <i>How Do You Find an Exoplanet?</i> sheds new light on the prospect of finding life outside our solar system, how surprising new observations suggest that we may not fully understand how planets form, and much more.
9781400874002 Mathematical Knowledge and the Interplay of Practices Ferreirós, José Mathematics, Philosophy of mathematics, Set theory, Philosophy 2016 360 This book presents a new approach to the epistemology of mathematics by viewing mathematics as a human activity whose knowledge is intimately linked with practice. Charting an exciting new direction in the philosophy of mathematics, José Ferreirós uses the crucial idea of a continuum to provide an account of the development of mathematical knowledge that reflects the actual experience of doing math and makes sense of the perceived objectivity of mathematical results.

Describing a historically oriented, agent-based philosophy of mathematics, Ferreirós shows how the mathematical tradition evolved from Euclidean geometry to the real numbers and set-theoretic structures. He argues for the need to take into account a whole web of mathematical and other practices that are learned and linked by agents, and whose interplay acts as a constraint. Ferreirós demonstrates how advanced mathematics, far from being a priori, is based on hypotheses, in contrast to elementary math, which has strong cognitive and practical roots and therefore enjoys certainty.

Offering a wealth of philosophical and historical insights, <i>Mathematical Knowledge and the Interplay of Practices</i> challenges us to rethink some of our most basic assumptions about mathematics, its objectivity, and its relationship to culture and science.
9781400881338 The Mathematics of Various Entertaining Subjects     Hobbies,  quizzes & games, Mathematics, History of mathematics 2016 288 The history of mathematics is filled with major breakthroughs resulting from solutions to recreational problems. Problems of interest to gamblers led to the modern theory of probability, for example, and surreal numbers were inspired by the game of Go. Yet even with such groundbreaking findings and a wealth of popular-level books exploring puzzles and brainteasers, research in recreational mathematics has often been neglected. <i>The Mathematics of Various Entertaining Subjects </i>brings together authors from a variety of specialties to present fascinating problems and solutions in recreational mathematics.

Contributors to the book show how sophisticated mathematics can help construct mazes that look like famous people, how the analysis of crossword puzzles has much in common with understanding epidemics, and how the theory of electrical circuits is useful in understanding the classic Towers of Hanoi puzzle. The card game SET is related to the theory of error-correcting codes, and simple tic-tac-toe takes on a new life when played on an affine plane. Inspirations for the book's wealth of problems include board games, card tricks, fake coins, flexagons, pencil puzzles, poker, and so much more.

Looking at a plethora of eclectic games and puzzles, <i>The Mathematics of Various Entertaining Subjects</i> is sure to entertain, challenge, and inspire academic mathematicians and avid math enthusiasts alike.
9781400874309 Mathematics in Ancient Egypt Imhausen, Annette Mathematics & science, Combinatorics & graph theory, Mathematical foundations, History of mathematics, Philosophy of mathematics, History of science, Ancient Egypt 2016 248 <b>A survey of ancient Egyptian mathematics across three thousand years</b>

<i>Mathematics in Ancient Egypt</i> traces the development of Egyptian mathematics, from the end of the fourth millennium BC—and the earliest hints of writing and number notation—to the end of the pharaonic period in Greco-Roman times. Drawing from mathematical texts, architectural drawings, administrative documents, and other sources, Annette Imhausen surveys three thousand years of Egyptian history to present an integrated picture of theoretical mathematics in relation to the daily practices of Egyptian life and social structures.

Imhausen shows that from the earliest beginnings, pharaonic civilization used numerical techniques to efficiently control and use their material resources and labor. Even during the Old Kingdom, a variety of metrological systems had already been devised. By the Middle Kingdom, procedures had been established to teach mathematical techniques to scribes in order to make them proficient administrators for their king. Imhausen looks at counterparts to the notation of zero, suggests an explanation for the evolution of unit fractions, and analyzes concepts of arithmetic techniques. She draws connections and comparisons to Mesopotamian mathematics, examines which individuals in Egyptian society held mathematical knowledge, and considers which scribes were trained in mathematical ideas and why.

Of interest to historians of mathematics, mathematicians, Egyptologists, and all those curious about Egyptian culture, <i>Mathematics in Ancient Egypt</i> sheds new light on a civilization's unique mathematical evolution.
9781400874019 Descent in Buildings (AM-190) Mühlherr, Bernhard,Petersson, Holger P.,Weiss, Richard M. Annals of Mathematics Studies Mathematics & science, Groups & group theory, Algebraic geometry 2016 352 <i>Descent in Buildings</i> begins with the resolution of a major open question about the local structure of Bruhat-Tits buildings. The authors then put their algebraic solution into a geometric context by developing a general fixed point theory for groups acting on buildings of arbitrary type, giving necessary and sufficient conditions for the residues fixed by a group to form a kind of subbuilding or "form" of the original building. At the center of this theory is the notion of a Tits index, a combinatorial version of the notion of an index in the relative theory of algebraic groups. These results are combined at the end to show that every exceptional Bruhat-Tits building arises as a form of a "residually pseudo-split" Bruhat-Tits building. The book concludes with a display of the Tits indices associated with each of these exceptional forms.

This is the third and final volume of a trilogy that began with Richard Weiss' <i>The Structure of Spherical Buildings</i> and <i>The Structure of Affine Buildings</i>.
9781400874026 Classification of Pseudo-reductive Groups (AM-191) Conrad, Brian,Prasad, Gopal Annals of Mathematics Studies Mathematics, Algebra, Number theory, Algebraic geometry 2016 256 In the earlier monograph <i>Pseudo-reductive Groups</i>, Brian Conrad, Ofer Gabber, and Gopal Prasad explored the general structure of pseudo-reductive groups. In this new book, <i>Classification of Pseudo-reductive Groups</i>, Conrad and Prasad go further to study the classification over an arbitrary field. An isomorphism theorem proved here determines the automorphism schemes of these groups. The book also gives a Tits-Witt type classification of isotropic groups and displays a cohomological obstruction to the existence of pseudo-split forms. Constructions based on regular degenerate quadratic forms and new techniques with central extensions provide insight into new phenomena in characteristic 2, which also leads to simplifications of the earlier work. A generalized standard construction is shown to account for all possibilities up to mild central extensions.

The results and methods developed in <i>Classification of Pseudo-reductive Groups </i>will interest mathematicians and graduate students who work with algebraic groups in number theory and algebraic geometry in positive characteristic.
9781400880287 Fashion, Faith, and Fantasy in the New Physics of the Universe Penrose, Roger   History of science, Quantum physics (quantum mechanics & quantum field theory), Physics, Mathematics 2016 520 <b>Nobel Prize–winning physicist Roger Penrose questions some of the most fashionable ideas in physics today, including string theory</b>

What can fashionable ideas, blind faith, or pure fantasy possibly have to do with the scientific quest to understand the universe? Surely, theoretical physicists are immune to mere trends, dogmatic beliefs, or flights of fancy? In fact, acclaimed physicist and bestselling author Roger Penrose argues that researchers working at the extreme frontiers of physics are just as susceptible to these forces as anyone else. In this provocative book, he argues that fashion, faith, and fantasy, while sometimes productive and even essential in physics, may be leading today's researchers astray in three of the field's most important areas—string theory, quantum mechanics, and cosmology.

Arguing that string theory has veered away from physical reality by positing six extra hidden dimensions, Penrose cautions that the fashionable nature of a theory can cloud our judgment of its plausibility. In the case of quantum mechanics, its stunning success in explaining the atomic universe has led to an uncritical faith that it must also apply to reasonably massive objects, and Penrose responds by suggesting possible changes in quantum theory. Turning to cosmology, he argues that most of the current fantastical ideas about the origins of the universe cannot be true, but that an even wilder reality may lie behind them. Finally, Penrose describes how fashion, faith, and fantasy have ironically also shaped his own work, from twistor theory, a possible alternative to string theory that is beginning to acquire a fashionable status, to "conformal cyclic cosmology," an idea so fantastic that it could be called "conformal crazy cosmology."

The result is an important critique of some of the most significant developments in physics today from one of its most eminent figures.
9781400880515 In Praise of Simple Physics Nahin, Paul J. Princeton Puzzlers Physics, Mathematical physics, Mathematics, Mathematics & science 2016 272 <b>Fun puzzles that use physics to explore the wonders of everyday life</b>

Physics can explain many of the things that we commonly encounter. It can tell us why the night is dark, what causes the tides, and even how best to catch a baseball. With <i>In Praise of Simple Physics</i>, popular math and science writer Paul Nahin presents a plethora of situations that explore the science and math behind the wonders of everyday life. Roaming through a diverse range of puzzles, he illustrates how physics shows us ways to wring more energy from renewable sources, to measure the gravity in our car garages, to figure out which of three light switches in the basement controls the light bulb in the attic, and much, much more.

How fast can you travel from London to Paris? How do scientists calculate the energy of an atomic bomb explosion? How do you kick a football so it stays in the air and goes a long way downfield? Nahin begins with simpler problems and progresses to more challenging questions, and his entertaining, accessible, and scientifically and mathematically informed explanations are all punctuated by his trademark humor. Readers are presumed to have some background in beginning differential and integral calculus. Whether you simply have a personal interest in physics' influence in the world or you're an engineering and science student who wants to gain more physics know-how, this book has an intriguing scenario for you.

<i>In Praise of Simple Physics</i> proves that if we look carefully at the world around us, physics has answers for the most astonishing day-to-day occurrences.
9781400880751 The Box Levinson, Marc   Transport industries, Shipping industries 2016 544 In April 1956, a refitted oil tanker carried fifty-eight shipping containers from Newark to Houston. From that modest beginning, container shipping developed into a huge industry that made the boom in global trade possible. <i>The Box</i> tells the dramatic story of the container's creation, the decade of struggle before it was widely adopted, and the sweeping economic consequences of the sharp fall in transportation costs that containerization brought about.

 But the container didn't just happen. Its adoption required huge sums of money, both from private investors and from ports that aspired to be on the leading edge of a new technology. It required years of high-stakes bargaining with two of the titans of organized labor, Harry Bridges and Teddy Gleason, as well as delicate negotiations on standards that made it possible for almost any container to travel on any truck or train or ship. Ultimately, it took McLean's success in supplying U.S. forces in Vietnam to persuade the world of the container's potential.

 Drawing on previously neglected sources, economist Marc Levinson shows how the container transformed economic geography, devastating traditional ports such as New York and London and fueling the growth of previously obscure ones, such as Oakland. By making shipping so cheap that industry could locate factories far from its customers, the container paved the way for Asia to become the world's workshop and brought consumers a previously unimaginable variety of low-cost products from around the globe.

  Published in hardcover on the fiftieth anniversary of the first container voyage, this is the first comprehensive history of the shipping container. Now with a new chapter, <i>The Box </i>tells the dramatic story of how the drive and imagination of an iconoclastic entrepreneur turned containerization from an impractical idea into a phenomenon that transformed economic geography, slashed transportation costs, and made the boom in global trade possible.
9781400880775 The Long Thaw Archer, David Princeton Science Library Climate change, Geology & the lithosphere, Geochemistry, Popular science 2016 200 The human impact on Earth's climate is often treated as a hundred-year issue lasting as far into the future as 2100, the year in which most climate projections cease. In <i>The Long Thaw</i>, David Archer, one of the world’s leading climatologists, reveals the hard truth that these changes in climate will be "locked in," essentially forever.

If you think that global warming means slightly hotter weather and a modest rise in sea levels that will persist only so long as fossil fuels hold out (or until we decide to stop burning them), think again. In <i>The Long Thaw</i>, David Archer predicts that if we continue to emit carbon dioxide we may eventually cancel the next ice age and raise the oceans by 50 meters. A human-driven, planet-wide thaw has already begun, and will continue to impact Earth’s climate and sea level for hundreds of thousands of years. The great ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland may take more than a century to melt, and the overall change in sea level will be one hundred times what is forecast for 2100. By comparing the global warming projection for the next century to natural climate changes of the distant past, and then looking into the future far beyond the usual scientific and political horizon of the year 2100, Archer reveals the hard truths of the long-term climate forecast.

 Archer shows how just a few centuries of fossil-fuel use will cause not only a climate storm that will last a few hundred years, but dramatic climate changes that will last thousands. Carbon dioxide emitted today will be a problem for millennia. For the first time, humans have become major players in shaping the long-term climate. In fact, a planetwide thaw driven by humans has already begun. But despite the seriousness of the situation, Archer argues that it is still not too late to avert dangerous climate change--if humans can find a way to cooperate as never before.

 Revealing why carbon dioxide may be an even worse gamble in the long run than in the short, this compelling and critically important book brings the best long-term climate science to a general audience for the first time.

 With a new preface that discusses recent advances in climate science, and the impact on global warming and climate change, <i>The Long Thaw</i> shows that it is still not too late to avert dangerous climate change—if we can find a way to cooperate as never before.
9781400881222 Non-Archimedean Tame Topology and Stably Dominated Types (AM-192) Hrushovski, Ehud,Loeser, François Annals of Mathematics Studies Analytic geometry, Algebraic geometry, Geometry, Topology 2016 232 Over the field of real numbers, analytic geometry has long been in deep interaction with algebraic geometry, bringing the latter subject many of its topological insights. In recent decades, model theory has joined this work through the theory of o-minimality, providing finiteness and uniformity statements and new structural tools.

For non-archimedean fields, such as the <i>p</i>-adics, the Berkovich analytification provides a connected topology with many thoroughgoing analogies to the real topology on the set of complex points, and it has become an important tool in algebraic dynamics and many other areas of geometry.

This book lays down model-theoretic foundations for non-archimedean geometry. The methods combine o-minimality and stability theory. Definable types play a central role, serving first to define the notion of a point and then properties such as definable compactness.

Beyond the foundations, the main theorem constructs a deformation retraction from the full non-archimedean space of an algebraic variety to a rational polytope. This generalizes previous results of V. Berkovich, who used resolution of singularities methods.

No previous knowledge of non-archimedean geometry is assumed. Model-theoretic prerequisites are reviewed in the first sections.
9781400881239 The p-adic Simpson Correspondence (AM-193) Abbes, Ahmed,Gros, Michel,Tsuji, Takeshi Annals of Mathematics Studies Algebra, Calculus & mathematical analysis, Groups & group theory 2016 616 The <i>p</i>-adic Simpson correspondence, recently initiated by Gerd Faltings, aims at describing all <i>p</i>-adic representations of the fundamental group of a proper smooth variety over a <i>p</i>-adic field in terms of linear algebra—namely Higgs bundles. This book undertakes a systematic development of the theory following two new approaches, one by Ahmed Abbes and Michel Gros, the other by Takeshi Tsuji. The authors mainly focus on generalized representations of the fundamental group that are <i>p</i>-adically close to the trivial representation.

The first approach relies on a new family of period rings built from the torsor of deformations of the variety over a universal <i>p</i>-adic thickening defined by J. M. Fontaine. The second approach introduces a crystalline-type topos and replaces the notion of Higgs bundles with that of Higgs isocrystals. The authors show the compatibility of the two constructions and the compatibility of the correspondence with the natural cohomologies. The last part of the volume contains results of wider interest in <i>p</i>-adic Hodge theory. The reader will find a concise introduction to Faltings' theory of almost étale extensions and a chapter devoted to the Faltings topos. Though this topos is the general framework for Faltings' approach in <i>p</i>-adic Hodge theory, it remains relatively unexplored. The authors present a new approach based on a generalization of P. Deligne's covanishing topos.
9781400881246 Fourier Restriction for Hypersurfaces in Three Dimensions and Newton Polyhedra (AM-194) Ikromov, Isroil A.,Müller, Detlef Annals of Mathematics Studies Geometry, Algebraic geometry, Topology, Mathematical logic 2016 272 This is the first book to present a complete characterization of Stein-Tomas type Fourier restriction estimates for large classes of smooth hypersurfaces in three dimensions, including all real-analytic hypersurfaces. The range of Lebesgue spaces for which these estimates are valid is described in terms of Newton polyhedra associated to the given surface.

Isroil Ikromov and Detlef Müller begin with Elias M. Stein's concept of Fourier restriction and some relations between the decay of the Fourier transform of the surface measure and Stein-Tomas type restriction estimates. Varchenko's ideas relating Fourier decay to associated Newton polyhedra are briefly explained, particularly the concept of adapted coordinates and the notion of height. It turns out that these classical tools essentially suffice already to treat the case where there exist linear adapted coordinates, and thus Ikromov and Müller concentrate on the remaining case. Here the notion of r-height is introduced, which proves to be the right new concept. They then describe decomposition techniques and related stopping time algorithms that allow to partition the given surface into various pieces, which can eventually be handled by means of oscillatory integral estimates. Different interpolation techniques are presented and used, from complex to more recent real methods by Bak and Seeger.

Fourier restriction plays an important role in several fields, in particular in real and harmonic analysis, number theory, and PDEs. This book will interest graduate students and researchers working in such fields.
9781400881253 Complex Ball Quotients and Line Arrangements in the Projective Plane (MN-51) Tretkoff, Paula Mathematical Notes Geometry, Algebraic geometry, Complex analysis,  complex variables 2016 232 This book introduces the theory of complex surfaces through a comprehensive look at finite covers of the projective plane branched along line arrangements. Paula Tretkoff emphasizes those finite covers that are free quotients of the complex two-dimensional ball. Tretkoff also includes background on the classical Gauss hypergeometric function of one variable, and a chapter on the Appell two-variable F1 hypergeometric function.

The material in this book began as a set of lecture notes, taken by Tretkoff, of a course given by Friedrich Hirzebruch at ETH Zürich in 1996. The lecture notes were then considerably expanded by Hirzebruch and Tretkoff over a number of years. In this book, Tretkoff has expanded those notes even further, still stressing examples offered by finite covers of line arrangements. The book is largely self-contained and foundational material is introduced and explained as needed, but not treated in full detail. References to omitted material are provided for interested readers.

Aimed at graduate students and researchers, this is an accessible account of a highly informative area of complex geometry.
9781400882823 Mathematical Methods for Geophysics and Space Physics Newman, William I.   Geophysics, Earth sciences, Astronomy,  space & time, Mathematical foundations, Astrophysics 2016 272 Graduate students in the natural sciences—including not only geophysics and space physics but also atmospheric and planetary physics, ocean sciences, and astronomy—need a broad-based mathematical toolbox to facilitate their research. In addition, they need to survey a wider array of mathematical methods that, while outside their particular areas of expertise, are important in related ones. While it is unrealistic to expect them to develop an encyclopedic knowledge of all the methods that are out there, they need to know how and where to obtain reliable and effective insights into these broader areas. Here at last is a graduate textbook that provides these students with the mathematical skills they need to succeed in today's highly interdisciplinary research environment.

This authoritative and accessible book covers everything from the elements of vector and tensor analysis to ordinary differential equations, special functions, and chaos and fractals. Other topics include integral transforms, complex analysis, and inverse theory; partial differential equations of mathematical geophysics; probability, statistics, and computational methods; and much more.

Proven in the classroom, <i>Mathematical Methods for Geophysics and Space Physics</i> features numerous exercises throughout as well as suggestions for further reading.
<li>Provides an authoritative and accessible introduction to the subject</li>
<li>Covers vector and tensor analysis, ordinary differential equations, integrals and approximations, Fourier transforms, diffusion and dispersion, sound waves and perturbation theory, randomness in data, and a host of other topics</li>
<li>Features numerous exercises throughout</li>
<li>Ideal for students and researchers alike</li>
<li>An online illustration package is available to professors</li></ul>
9781400880522 Strange Glow Jorgensen, Timothy J. Popular science, Nuclear chemistry,  photochemistry & radiation, Molecular biology, History of science 2017 512 <b>The fascinating science and history of radiation</b>

More than ever before, radiation is a part of our modern daily lives. We own radiation-emitting phones, regularly get diagnostic x-rays, such as mammograms, and submit to full-body security scans at airports. We worry and debate about the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the safety of nuclear power plants. But how much do we really know about radiation? And what are its actual dangers? An accessible blend of narrative history and science, <i>Strange Glow</i> describes mankind's extraordinary, thorny relationship with radiation, including the hard-won lessons of how radiation helps and harms our health. Timothy Jorgensen explores how our knowledge of and experiences with radiation in the last century can lead us to smarter personal decisions about radiation exposures today.

Jorgensen introduces key figures in the story of radiation—from Wilhelm Roentgen, the discoverer of x-rays, and pioneering radioactivity researchers Marie and Pierre Curie, to Thomas Edison and the victims of the recent Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. Tracing the most important events in the evolution of radiation, Jorgensen explains exactly what radiation is, how it produces certain health consequences, and how we can protect ourselves from harm. He also considers a range of practical scenarios such as the risks of radon in our basements, radiation levels in the fish we eat, questions about cell-phone use, and radiation's link to cancer. Jorgensen empowers us to make informed choices while offering a clearer understanding of broader societal issues.

Investigating radiation's benefits and risks, <i>Strange Glow</i> takes a remarkable look at how, for better or worse, radiation has transformed our society.
9781400883226 Welcome to the Universe Tyson, Neil deGrasse,Strauss, Michael,Gott, J. Richard   Popular science, Astrophysics, Cosmology & the universe 2017 480 <b>The <i>New York Times</i> bestselling tour of the cosmos from three of today's leading astrophysicists</b>

<i>Welcome to the Universe</i> is a personal guided tour of the cosmos by three of today's leading astrophysicists. Inspired by the enormously popular introductory astronomy course that Neil deGrasse Tyson, Michael A. Strauss, and J. Richard Gott taught together at Princeton, this book covers it all—from planets, stars, and galaxies to black holes, wormholes, and time travel.

Describing the latest discoveries in astrophysics, the informative and entertaining narrative propels you from our home solar system to the outermost frontiers of space. How do stars live and die? Why did Pluto lose its planetary status? What are the prospects of intelligent life elsewhere in the universe? How did the universe begin? Why is it expanding and why is its expansion accelerating? Is our universe alone or part of an infinite multiverse? Answering these and many other questions, the authors open your eyes to the wonders of the cosmos, sharing their knowledge of how the universe works.

Breathtaking in scope and stunningly illustrated throughout, <i>Welcome to the Universe</i> is for those who hunger for insights into our evolving universe that only world-class astrophysicists can provide.
9781400884070 The Power of Networks Brinton, Christopher G.,Chiang, Mung Internet & WWW industries, Impact of science & technology on society, Technology: general issues 2017 328 <b>An accessible illustrated introducton to the networks we use every day, from Facebook and Google to WiFi and the Internet</b>

What makes WiFi faster at home than at a coffee shop? How does Google order search results? Why do Amazon, Netflix, and YouTube use fundamentally different rating and recommendation methods—and why does it matter? Is it really true that everyone on Facebook is connected in six steps or less? And how do cat videos—or anything else—go viral? <i>The Power of Networks</i> answers questions like these for the first time in a way that all of us can understand and use, whether at home, the office, or school. Using simple language, analogies, stories, hundreds of illustrations, and no more math than simple addition and multiplication, Christopher Brinton and Mung Chiang provide a smart but accessible introduction to the handful of big ideas that drive the technical and social networks we use every day—from cellular phone networks and cloud computing to the Internet and social media platforms.

<i>The Power of Networks</i> unifies these ideas through six fundamental principles of networking, which explain the difficulties in sharing network resources efficiently, how crowds can be wise or not so wise depending on the nature of their connections, how there are many building-blocks of layers in a network, and more. Understanding these simple ideas unlocks the workings of everything from the connections we make on Facebook to the technology that runs such platforms. Along the way, the authors also talk with and share the special insights of renowned experts such as Google's Eric Schmidt, former Verizon Wireless CEO Dennis Strigl, and "fathers of the Internet" Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn.

Networks are everywhere. <i>The Power of Networks</i> shows how they work—and what understanding them can do for you.
9781400884483 The Joy of SET McMahon, Liz,Gordon, Gary,Gordon, Hannah,Gordon, Rebecca   Popular science, Set theory, Mathematics, Card games 2017 320 <b>A mathematical exploration of the popular card game SET</b>

Have you ever played the addictive card game SET? Have you ever wondered about the connections between games and mathematics? If the answer to either question is "yes," then <i>The Joy of SET </i>is the book for you! <i>The Joy of SET</i> takes readers on a fascinating journey into this seemingly simple card game and reveals its surprisingly deep and diverse mathematical dimensions. Absolutely no mathematical background is necessary to enjoy this book—all you need is a sense of curiosity and adventure!

Originally invented in 1974 by Marsha Falco and officially released in 1991, SET has gained a widespread, loyal following. SET's eighty-one cards consist of one, two, or three symbols of different shapes (diamond, oval, squiggle), shadings (solid, striped, open), and colors (green, purple, red). In order to win, players must identify “sets” of three cards for which each characteristic is the same—or different—on all the cards. SET’s strategic and unique design opens connections to a plethora of mathematical disciplines, including geometry, modular arithmetic, combinatorics, probability, linear algebra, and computer simulations. <i>The Joy of SET</i> looks at these areas as well as avenues for further mathematical exploration. As the authors show, the relationship between SET and mathematics runs in both directions—playing this game has generated new mathematics, and the math has led to new questions about the game itself.

The first book devoted to the mathematics of one of today’s most popular card games, <i>The Joy of SET</i> will entertain and enlighten the game enthusiast in all of us.
9781400883585 The Edge of Objectivity Gillispie, Charles Coulston History of science 2017 600 Originally published in 1960,<i> The Edge of Objectivity</i> helped to establish the history of science as a full-fledged academic discipline. In the mid-1950s, a young professor at Princeton named Charles Gillispie began teaching Humanities 304, one of the first undergraduate courses offered anywhere in the world on the history of science. From Galileo's analysis of motion to theories of evolution and relativity, Gillispie introduces key concepts, individuals, and themes. <i>The Edge of Objectivity</i> arose out of this course.

 It must have been a lively class. <i>The Edge of Objectivity</i> is pointed, opinionated, and selective. Even at six hundred pages, the book is, as the title suggests, an essay. Gillispie is unafraid to rate Mendel higher than Darwin, Maxwell above Faraday. Full of wry turns of phrase, the book effectively captures people and places. And throughout the book, Gillispie pushes an argument. He views science as the progressive development of more objective, detached, mathematical ways of viewing the world, and he orchestrates his characters and ideas around this theme.

 This edition of Charles Coulston Gillispie’s landmark book introduces a new generation of readers to his provocative and enlightening account of the advancement of scientific thought over the course of four centuries. Since the original publication of <i>The Edge of Objectivity</i>, historians of science have focused increasingly on the social context of science rather than its internal dynamics, and they have frequently viewed science more as a threatening instance of power than as an accumulation of knowledge. Nevertheless, Gillispie’s book remains a sophisticated, fast-moving, idiosyncratic account of the development of scientific ideas over four hundred years, by one of the founding intellects in the history of science.

Featuring a new foreword by Theodore Porter, who places the work in its intellectual context and the development of the field, this edition of <i>The Edge of Objectivity</i> is a monumental work by one of the founding intellects of the history of science.
9781400883783 Making and Breaking Mathematical Sense Wagner, Roi   Philosophy of mathematics, History of mathematics, Philosophy of science, History of science 2017 256 In line with the emerging field of philosophy of mathematical practice, this book pushes the philosophy of mathematics away from questions about the reality and truth of mathematical entities and statements and toward a focus on what mathematicians actually do—and how that evolves and changes over time. How do new mathematical entities come to be? What internal, natural, cognitive, and social constraints shape mathematical cultures? How do mathematical signs form and reform their meanings? How can we model the cognitive processes at play in mathematical evolution? And how does mathematics tie together ideas, reality, and applications?

Roi Wagner uniquely combines philosophical, historical, and cognitive studies to paint a fully rounded image of mathematics not as an absolute ideal but as a human endeavor that takes shape in specific social and institutional contexts. The book builds on ancient, medieval, and modern case studies to confront philosophical reconstructions and cutting-edge cognitive theories. It focuses on the contingent semiotic and interpretive dimensions of mathematical practice, rather than on mathematics' claim to universal or fundamental truths, in order to explore not only what mathematics is, but also what it could be. Along the way, Wagner challenges conventional views that mathematical signs represent fixed, ideal entities; that mathematical cognition is a rigid transfer of inferences between formal domains; and that mathematics’ exceptional consensus is due to the subject’s underlying reality.

The result is a revisionist account of mathematical philosophy that will interest mathematicians, philosophers, and historians of science alike.
9781400883202 Sourcebook in the Mathematics of Medieval Europe and North Africa History of mathematics, Mathematics, History of science, Philosophy of mathematics 2017 592 Medieval Europe was a meeting place for the Christian, Jewish, and Islamic civilizations, and the fertile intellectual exchange of these cultures can be seen in the mathematical developments of the time. This sourcebook presents original Latin, Hebrew, and Arabic sources of medieval mathematics, and shows their cross-cultural influences. Most of the Hebrew and Arabic sources appear here in translation for the first time.

Readers will discover key mathematical revelations, foundational texts, and sophisticated writings by Latin, Hebrew, and Arabic-speaking mathematicians, including Abner of Burgos's elegant arguments proving results on the conchoid—a curve previously unknown in medieval Europe; Levi ben Gershon’s use of mathematical induction in combinatorial proofs; Al-Mu’taman Ibn Hūd’s extensive survey of mathematics, which included proofs of Heron’s Theorem and Ceva’s Theorem; and Muhyī al-Dīn al-Maghribī’s interesting proof of Euclid’s parallel postulate. The book includes a general introduction, section introductions, footnotes, and references.

The <i>Sourcebook in the Mathematics of Medieval Europe and North Africa</i> will be indispensable to anyone seeking out the important historical sources of premodern mathematics.
9781400883073 Exoplanetary Atmospheres Heng, Kevin Princeton Series in Astrophysics   2017 296 <b>An essential introduction to the theory of exoplanetary atmospheres</b>

The study of exoplanetary atmospheres—that is, of planets orbiting stars beyond our solar system—may be our best hope for discovering life elsewhere in the universe. This dynamic, interdisciplinary field requires practitioners to apply knowledge from atmospheric and climate science, astronomy and astrophysics, chemistry, geology and geophysics, planetary science, and even biology. <i>Exoplanetary Atmospheres</i> provides an essential introduction to the theoretical foundations of this cutting-edge new science.

<i>Exoplanetary Atmospheres</i> covers the physics of radiation, fluid dynamics, atmospheric chemistry, and atmospheric escape. It draws on simple analytical models to aid learning, and features a wealth of problem sets, some of which are open-ended. This authoritative and accessible graduate textbook uses a coherent and self-consistent set of notation and definitions throughout, and also includes appendixes containing useful formulae in thermodynamics and vector calculus as well as selected Python scripts.

<i>Exoplanetary Atmospheres</i> prepares PhD students for research careers in the field, and is ideal for self-study as well as for use in a course setting.
<ul><li>The first graduate textbook on the theory of exoplanetary atmospheres</li><li>Unifies knowledge from atmospheric and climate science, astronomy and astrophysics, chemistry, planetary science, and more</li><li>Covers radiative transfer, fluid dynamics, atmospheric chemistry, and atmospheric escape</li><li>Provides simple analytical models and a wealth of problem sets</li><li>Includes appendixes on thermodynamics, vector calculus, tabulated Gibbs free energies, and Python scripts</li><li>Solutions manual (available only to professors)</li></ul>
9781400884629 The Usefulness of Useless Knowledge Flexner, Abraham Physics, Impact of science & technology on society, Philosophy of science 2017 104 <b>A short, provocative book about why "useless" science often leads to humanity's greatest technological breakthroughs</b>

A forty-year tightening of funding for scientific research has meant that resources are increasingly directed toward applied or practical outcomes, with the intent of creating products of immediate value. In such a scenario, it makes sense to focus on the most identifiable and urgent problems, right? Actually, it doesn't. In his classic essay "The Usefulness of Useless Knowledge," Abraham Flexner, the founding director of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton and the man who helped bring Albert Einstein to the United States, describes a great paradox of scientific research. The search for answers to deep questions, motivated solely by curiosity and without concern for applications, often leads not only to the greatest scientific discoveries but also to the most revolutionary technological breakthroughs. In short, no quantum mechanics, no computer chips.

This brief book includes Flexner's timeless 1939 essay alongside a new companion essay by Robbert Dijkgraaf, the Institute's current director, in which he shows that Flexner's defense of the value of "the unobstructed pursuit of useless knowledge" may be even more relevant today than it was in the early twentieth century. Dijkgraaf describes how basic research has led to major transformations in the past century and explains why it is an essential precondition of innovation and the first step in social and cultural change. He makes the case that society can achieve deeper understanding and practical progress today and tomorrow only by truly valuing and substantially funding the curiosity-driven "pursuit of useless knowledge" in both the sciences and the humanities.
9781400884797 Unsolved! Bauer, Craig P.   Coding theory & cryptology, Computer science, Mathematics, Popular science 2017 624 <b>Watch Craig Bauer discuss the Zodiac Killer’s cipher on HISTORY’s new miniseries <i>The Hunt for the Zodiac Killer</i></b>

In 1953, a man was found dead from cyanide poisoning near the Philadelphia airport with a picture of a Nazi aircraft in his wallet. Taped to his abdomen was an enciphered message. In 1912, a book dealer named Wilfrid Voynich came into possession of an illuminated cipher manuscript once belonging to Emperor Rudolf II, who was obsessed with alchemy and the occult. Wartime codebreakers tried—and failed—to unlock the book's secrets, and it remains an enigma to this day. In this lively and entertaining book, Craig Bauer examines these and other vexing ciphers yet to be cracked. Some may reveal the identity of a spy or serial killer, provide the location of buried treasure, or expose a secret society—while others may be elaborate hoaxes.

<i>Unsolved!</i> begins by explaining the basics of cryptology, and then explores the history behind an array of unsolved ciphers. It looks at ancient ciphers, ciphers created by artists and composers, ciphers left by killers and victims, Cold War ciphers, and many others. Some are infamous, like the ciphers in the Zodiac letters, while others were created purely as intellectual challenges by figures such as Nobel Prize–winning physicist Richard P. Feynman. Bauer lays out the evidence surrounding each cipher, describes the efforts of geniuses and eccentrics—in some cases both—to decipher it, and invites readers to try their hand at puzzles that have stymied so many others.

<i>Unsolved!</i> takes readers from the ancient world to the digital age, providing an amazing tour of many of history's greatest unsolved ciphers.
9781400885534 Finding Fibonacci Devlin, Keith Mathematics, Popular science 2017 256 <b>A compelling firsthand account of Keith Devlin's ten-year quest to tell Fibonacci's story</b>

In 2000, Keith Devlin set out to research the life and legacy of the medieval mathematician Leonardo of Pisa, popularly known as Fibonacci, whose book <i>Liber abbaci</i> has quite literally affected the lives of everyone alive today. Although he is most famous for the Fibonacci numbers—which, it so happens, he didn't invent—Fibonacci's greatest contribution was as an expositor of mathematical ideas at a level ordinary people could understand. In 1202, <i>Liber abbaci</i>—the "Book of Calculation"—introduced modern arithmetic to the Western world. Yet Fibonacci was long forgotten after his death, and it was not until the 1960s that his true achievements were finally recognized.

<i>Finding Fibonacci</i> is Devlin's compelling firsthand account of his ten-year quest to tell Fibonacci's story. Devlin, a math expositor himself, kept a diary of the undertaking, which he draws on here to describe the project's highs and lows, its false starts and disappointments, the tragedies and unexpected turns, some hilarious episodes, and the occasional lucky breaks. You will also meet the unique individuals Devlin encountered along the way, people who, each for their own reasons, became fascinated by Fibonacci, from the Yale professor who traced modern finance back to Fibonacci to the Italian historian who made the crucial archival discovery that brought together all the threads of Fibonacci's astonishing story.

Fibonacci helped to revive the West as the cradle of science, technology, and commerce, yet he vanished from the pages of history. This is Devlin's search to find him.
9781400884810 The Calculus of Happiness Fernandez, Oscar   Calculus, Pre-calculus, Mathematics, Popular science 2017 176 <b>How math holds the keys to improving one's health, wealth, and love life</b>

What's the best diet for overall health and weight management? How can we change our finances to retire earlier? How can we maximize our chances of finding our soul mate?

In <i>The Calculus of Happiness</i>, Oscar Fernandez shows us that math yields powerful insights into health, wealth, and love. Using only high-school-level math (precalculus with a dash of calculus), Fernandez guides us through several of the surprising results, including an easy rule of thumb for choosing foods that lower our risk for developing diabetes (and that help us lose weight too), simple "all-weather" investment portfolios with great returns, and math-backed strategies for achieving financial independence and searching for our soul mate. Moreover, the important formulas are linked to a dozen free online interactive calculators on the book’s website, allowing one to personalize the equations.

Fernandez uses everyday experiences—such as visiting a coffee shop—to provide context for his mathematical insights, making the math discussed more accessible, real-world, and relevant to our daily lives. Every chapter ends with a summary of essential lessons and takeaways, and for advanced math fans, Fernandez includes the mathematical derivations in the appendices.

A nutrition, personal finance, and relationship how-to guide all in one,<i> The Calculus of Happiness </i>invites you to discover how empowering mathematics can be.
9781400885602 The Best Writing on Mathematics 2016 The Best Writing on Mathematics Mathematics, Anthologies (non-poetry), Popular science 2017 408 <b>The year's finest mathematics writing from around the world</b>

This annual anthology brings together the year's finest mathematics writing from around the world. Featuring promising new voices alongside some of the foremost names in the field, <i>The Best Writing on Mathematics 2016</i> makes available to a wide audience many articles not easily found anywhere else—and you don't need to be a mathematician to enjoy them. These writings offer surprising insights into the nature, meaning, and practice of mathematics today. They delve into the history, philosophy, teaching, and everyday occurrences of math, and take readers behind the scenes of today's hottest mathematical debates.

Here Burkard Polster shows how to invent your own variants of the Spot It! card game, Steven Strogatz presents young Albert Einstein's proof of the Pythagorean Theorem, Joseph Dauben and Marjorie Senechal find a treasure trove of math in New York's Metropolitan Museum of Art, and Andrew Gelman explains why much scientific research based on statistical testing is spurious. In other essays, Brian Greene discusses the evolving assumptions of the physicists who developed the mathematical underpinnings of string theory, Jorge Almeida examines the misperceptions of people who attempt to predict lottery results, and Ian Stewart offers advice to authors who aspire to write successful math books for general readers. And there's much, much more.

In addition to presenting the year's most memorable writings on mathematics, this must-have anthology includes a bibliography of other notable writings and an introduction by the editor, Mircea Pitici. This book belongs on the shelf of anyone interested in where math has taken us—and where it is headed.
9781400884827 Power-Up Lane, Matthew   Mathematics, Optimization, Algebra, Computer games design, Games development & programming, Popular science 2017 264 <b>A fun and lively look at the mathematical ideas concealed in video games</b>

Did you know that every time you pick up the controller to your PlayStation or Xbox, you are entering a game world steeped in mathematics? <i>Power-Up</i> reveals the hidden mathematics in many of today's most popular video games and explains why mathematical learning doesn't just happen in the classroom or from books—you're doing it without even realizing it when you play games on your cell phone.

In this lively and entertaining book, Matthew Lane discusses how gamers are engaging with the traveling salesman problem when they play <i>Assassin's Creed</i>, why it is mathematically impossible for Mario to jump through the Mushroom Kingdom in <i>Super Mario Bros.</i>, and how <i>The Sims</i> teaches us the mathematical costs of maintaining relationships. He looks at mathematical pursuit problems in classic games like <i>Missile Command</i> and <i>Ms. Pac-Man</i>, and how each time you play <i>Tetris</i>, you're grappling with one of the most famous unsolved problems in all of mathematics and computer science. Along the way, Lane discusses why <i>Family Feud</i> and Pictionary make for ho-hum video games, how realism in video games (or the lack of it) influences learning, what video games can teach us about the mathematics of voting, the mathematics of designing video games, and much more.

<i>Power-Up</i> shows how the world of video games is an unexpectedly rich medium for learning about the beautiful mathematical ideas that touch all aspects of our lives—including our virtual ones.
9781400885039 The Great Formal Machinery Works von Plato, Jan History of science, Mathematical theory of computation, Computer science, Mathematical logic, Philosophy: logic 2017 400 The information age owes its existence to a little-known but crucial development, the theoretical study of logic and the foundations of mathematics. <i>The Great Formal Machinery Works</i> draws on original sources and rare archival materials to trace the history of the theories of deduction and computation that laid the logical foundations for the digital revolution.

Jan von Plato examines the contributions of figures such as Aristotle; the nineteenth-century German polymath Hermann Grassmann; George Boole, whose Boolean logic would prove essential to programming languages and computing; Ernst Schröder, best known for his work on algebraic logic; and Giuseppe Peano, cofounder of mathematical logic. Von Plato shows how the idea of a formal proof in mathematics emerged gradually in the second half of the nineteenth century, hand in hand with the notion of a formal process of computation. A turning point was reached by 1930, when Kurt Gödel conceived his celebrated incompleteness theorems. They were an enormous boost to the study of formal languages and computability, which were brought to perfection by the end of the 1930s with precise theories of formal languages and formal deduction and parallel theories of algorithmic computability. Von Plato describes how the first theoretical ideas of a computer soon emerged in the work of Alan Turing in 1936 and John von Neumann some years later.

Shedding new light on this crucial chapter in the history of science, <i>The Great Formal Machinery Works</i> is essential reading for students and researchers in logic, mathematics, and computer science.
9781400885091 Why Stock Markets Crash Sornette, Didier Princeton Science Library Stocks & shares, Investment & securities, Finance, Economic theory & philosophy, Mathematical physics, Game theory 2017 448 The scientific study of complex systems has transformed a wide range of disciplines in recent years, enabling researchers in both the natural and social sciences to model and predict phenomena as diverse as earthquakes, global warming, demographic patterns, financial crises, and the failure of materials. In this book, Didier Sornette boldly applies his varied experience in these areas to propose a simple, powerful, and general theory of how, why, and when stock markets crash.

 Most attempts to explain market failures seek to pinpoint triggering mechanisms that occur hours, days, or weeks before the collapse. Sornette proposes a radically different view: the underlying cause can be sought months and even years before the abrupt, catastrophic event in the build-up of cooperative speculation, which often translates into an accelerating rise of the market price, otherwise known as a "bubble." Anchoring his sophisticated, step-by-step analysis in leading-edge physical and statistical modeling techniques, he unearths remarkable insights and some predictions--among them, that the "end of the growth era" will occur around 2050.

 Sornette probes major historical precedents, from the decades-long "tulip mania" in the Netherlands that wilted suddenly in 1637 to the South Sea Bubble that ended with the first huge market crash in England in 1720, to the Great Crash of October 1929 and Black Monday in 1987, to cite just a few. He concludes that most explanations other than cooperative self-organization fail to account for the subtle bubbles by which the markets lay the groundwork for catastrophe.

 Any investor or investment professional who seeks a genuine understanding of looming financial disasters should read this book. Physicists, geologists, biologists, economists, and others will welcome <i>Why Stock Markets Crash</i> as a highly original "scientific tale," as Sornette aptly puts it, of the exciting and sometimes fearsome--but no longer quite so unfathomable--world of stock markets.
9781400885398 Office Hours with a Geometric Group Theorist Groups & group theory, Geometry 2017 456 Geometric group theory is the study of the interplay between groups and the spaces they act on, and has its roots in the works of Henri Poincaré, Felix Klein, J.H.C. Whitehead, and Max Dehn. <i>Office Hours with a Geometric Group Theorist</i> brings together leading experts who provide one-on-one instruction on key topics in this exciting and relatively new field of mathematics. It's like having office hours with your most trusted math professors.

An essential primer for undergraduates making the leap to graduate work, the book begins with free groups—actions of free groups on trees, algorithmic questions about free groups, the ping-pong lemma, and automorphisms of free groups. It goes on to cover several large-scale geometric invariants of groups, including quasi-isometry groups, Dehn functions, Gromov hyperbolicity, and asymptotic dimension. It also delves into important examples of groups, such as Coxeter groups, Thompson's groups, right-angled Artin groups, lamplighter groups, mapping class groups, and braid groups. The tone is conversational throughout, and the instruction is driven by examples.

Accessible to students who have taken a first course in abstract algebra, <i>Office Hours with a Geometric Group Theorist</i> also features numerous exercises and in-depth projects designed to engage readers and provide jumping-off points for research projects.
9781400885404 Rays, Waves, and Scattering Adam, John A. Princeton Series in Applied Mathematics Applied mathematics, Wave mechanics (vibration & acoustics), Physics, Engineering: general 2017 616 This one-of-a-kind book presents many of the mathematical concepts, structures, and techniques used in the study of rays, waves, and scattering. Panoramic in scope, it includes discussions of how ocean waves are refracted around islands and underwater ridges, how seismic waves are refracted in the earth's interior, how atmospheric waves are scattered by mountains and ridges, how the scattering of light waves produces the blue sky, and meteorological phenomena such as rainbows and coronas.

<i>Rays, Waves, and Scattering</i> is a valuable resource for practitioners, graduate students, and advanced undergraduates in applied mathematics, theoretical physics, and engineering. Bridging the gap between advanced treatments of the subject written for specialists and less mathematical books aimed at beginners, this unique mathematical compendium features problems and exercises throughout that are geared to various levels of sophistication, covering everything from Ptolemy's theorem to Airy integrals (as well as more technical material), and several informative appendixes.
<ul><li>Provides a panoramic look at wave motion in many different contexts</li><li>Features problems and exercises throughout</li><li>Includes numerous appendixes, some on topics not often covered</li><li>An ideal reference book for practitioners</li><li>Can also serve as a supplemental text in classical applied mathematics, particularly wave theory and mathematical methods in physics and engineering</li><li>Accessible to anyone with a strong background in ordinary differential equations, partial differential equations, and functions of a complex variable</li></ul>
9781400885411 Asymptotic Differential Algebra and Model Theory of Transseries Aschenbrenner, Matthias,van den Dries, Lou,van der Hoeven, Joris Annals of Mathematics Studies Algebra, Differential calculus & equations 2017 880 Asymptotic differential algebra seeks to understand the solutions of differential equations and their asymptotics from an algebraic point of view. The differential field of transseries plays a central role in the subject. Besides powers of the variable, these series may contain exponential and logarithmic terms. Over the last thirty years, transseries emerged variously as super-exact asymptotic expansions of return maps of analytic vector fields, in connection with Tarski's problem on the field of reals with exponentiation, and in mathematical physics. Their formal nature also makes them suitable for machine computations in computer algebra systems.

This self-contained book validates the intuition that the differential field of transseries is a universal domain for asymptotic differential algebra. It does so by establishing in the realm of transseries a complete elimination theory for systems of algebraic differential equations with asymptotic side conditions. Beginning with background chapters on valuations and differential algebra, the book goes on to develop the basic theory of valued differential fields, including a notion of differential-henselianity. Next, <i>H</i>-fields are singled out among ordered valued differential fields to provide an algebraic setting for the common properties of Hardy fields and the differential field of transseries. The study of their extensions culminates in an analogue of the algebraic closure of a field: the Newton-Liouville closure of an <i>H</i>-field. This paves the way to a quantifier elimination with interesting consequences.
9781400885428 Hölder Continuous Euler Flows in Three Dimensions with Compact Support in Time Isett, Philip Annals of Mathematics Studies Mathematics & science, Mathematical physics, Differential calculus & equations 2017 216 Motivated by the theory of turbulence in fluids, the physicist and chemist Lars Onsager conjectured in 1949 that weak solutions to the incompressible Euler equations might fail to conserve energy if their spatial regularity was below 1/3-Hölder. In this book, Philip Isett uses the method of convex integration to achieve the best-known results regarding nonuniqueness of solutions and Onsager's conjecture. Focusing on the intuition behind the method, the ideas introduced now play a pivotal role in the ongoing study of weak solutions to fluid dynamics equations.

The construction itself—an intricate algorithm with hidden symmetries—mixes together transport equations, algebra, the method of nonstationary phase, underdetermined partial differential equations (PDEs), and specially designed high-frequency waves built using nonlinear phase functions.<i> </i>The powerful "Main Lemma"—used here to construct nonzero solutions with compact support in time and to prove nonuniqueness of solutions to the initial value problem—has been extended to a broad range of applications that are surveyed in the appendix. Appropriate for students and researchers studying nonlinear PDEs, this book aims to be as robust as possible and pinpoints the main difficulties that presently stand in the way of a full solution to Onsager's conjecture.
9781400887736 An Introduction to X-Ray Physics, Optics, and Applications MacDonald, Carolyn Optical physics, Spectrum analysis,  spectrochemistry,  mass spectrometry, Applied optics, Radiography 2017 368 In this book, Carolyn A. MacDonald provides a comprehensive introduction to the physics of a wide range of x-ray applications, optics, and analysis tools. Theory is applied to practical considerations of optics and applications ranging from astronomy to medical imaging and materials analysis.

Emphasizing common physical concepts that underpin diverse phenomena and applications of x-ray physics, the book opens with a look at nuclear medicine, motivating further investigations into scattering, detection, and noise statistics. The second section explores topics in x-ray generation, including characteristic emission, x-ray fluorescence analysis, bremsstrahlung emission, and synchrotron and laser sources. The third section details the main forms of interaction, including the physics of photoelectric absorption, coherent and Compton scattering, diffraction, and refractive, reflective, and diffractive optics. Applications in this section include x-ray spectroscopy, crystallography, and dose and contrast in radiography. A bibliography is included at the end of every chapter, and solutions to chapter problems are provided in the appendix.

Based on a course for advanced undergraduates and graduate students in physics and related sciences and also intended for researchers, <i>An Introduction to X-Ray Physics, Optics, and Applications</i> offers a thorough survey of the physics of x-ray generation and of interaction with materials.
<ul><li>Common aspects of diverse phenomena emphasized</li><li>Theoretical development tied to practical applications </li><li>Suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in physics or related sciences, as well as researchers</li><li>Examples and problems include applications drawn from medicine, astronomy, and materials analysis</li><li>Detailed solutions are provided for all examples and problems </li></ul>
9781400885497 Natural Complexity Charbonneau, Paul Primers in Complex Systems Mathematical physics, Programming & scripting languages: general, Database design & theory, Research methods: general 2017 376 This book provides a short, hands-on introduction to the science of complexity using simple computational models of natural complex systems—with models and exercises drawn from physics, chemistry, geology, and biology. By working through the models and engaging in additional computational explorations suggested at the end of each chapter, readers very quickly develop an understanding of how complex structures and behaviors can emerge in natural phenomena as diverse as avalanches, forest fires, earthquakes, chemical reactions, animal flocks, and epidemic diseases.

<i>Natural Complexity</i> provides the necessary topical background, complete source codes in Python, and detailed explanations for all computational models. Ideal for undergraduates, beginning graduate students, and researchers in the physical and natural sciences, this unique handbook requires no advanced mathematical knowledge or programming skills and is suitable for self-learners with a working knowledge of precalculus and high-school physics.

Self-contained and accessible, <i>Natural Complexity</i> enables readers to identify and quantify common underlying structural and dynamical patterns shared by the various systems and phenomena it examines, so that they can form their own answers to the questions of what natural complexity is and how it arises.
9781400885503 Can the Laws of Physics Be Unified? Langacker, Paul Princeton Frontiers in Physics Nuclear physics, Particle & high-energy physics, Atomic & molecular physics, Quantum physics (quantum mechanics & quantum field theory), Relativity physics 2017 288 <b>A concise introduction to the cutting-edge science of particle physics</b>

The standard model of particle physics describes our current understanding of nature's fundamental particles and their interactions, yet gaps remain. For example, it does not include a quantum theory of gravity, nor does it explain the existence of dark matter. Once complete, however, the standard model could provide a unified description of the very building blocks of the universe. Researchers have been chasing this dream for decades, and many wonder whether such a dream can ever be made a reality.

<i>Can the Laws of Physics Be Unified?</i> is a short introduction to this exciting frontier of physics. The book is accessibly written for students and researchers across the sciences, and for scientifically minded general readers. Paul Langacker begins with an overview of the key breakthroughs that have shaped the standard model, and then describes the fundamental particles, their interactions, and their role in cosmology. He goes on to explain field theory, internal symmetries, Yang-Mills theories, strong and electroweak interactions, the Higgs boson discovery, and neutrino physics. Langacker then looks at the questions that are still unanswered: What is the nature of the mysterious dark matter and dark energy that make up roughly 95 percent of the universe? Why is there more matter than antimatter? How can we reconcile quantum mechanics and general relativity?

<i>Can the Laws of Physics Be Unified?</i> describes the promising theoretical ideas and new experiments that could provide answers and weighs our prospects for establishing a truly unified theory of the smallest constituents of nature and their interactions.
9781400883806 The Extravagant Universe Kirshner, Robert P. Princeton Science Library Popular science, Astronomy,  space & time, Cosmology & the universe 2017 304 <i>The Extravagant Universe</i> tells the story of a remarkable adventure of scientific discovery. One of the world's leading astronomers, Robert Kirshner, takes readers inside a lively research team on the quest that led them to an extraordinary cosmological discovery: the expansion of the universe is accelerating under the influence of a dark energy that makes space itself expand. In addition to sharing the story of this exciting discovery, Kirshner also brings the science up-to-date in a new epilogue. He explains how the idea of an accelerating universe--once a daring interpretation of sketchy data--is now the standard assumption in cosmology today.

 This measurement of dark energy--a quality of space itself that causes cosmic acceleration--points to a gaping hole in our understanding of fundamental physics. In 1917, Einstein proposed the "cosmological constant" to explain a static universe. When observations proved that the universe was expanding, he cast this early form of dark energy aside. But recent observations described first-hand in this book show that the cosmological constant--or something just like it--dominates the universe's mass and energy budget and determines its fate and shape.

 Warned by Einstein's blunder, and contradicted by the initial results of a competing research team, Kirshner and his colleagues were reluctant to accept their own result. But, convinced by evidence built on their hard-earned understanding of exploding stars, they announced their conclusion that the universe is accelerating in February 1998. Other lines of inquiry and parallel supernova research now support a new synthesis of a cosmos dominated by dark energy but also containing several forms of dark matter. We live in an extravagant universe with a surprising number of essential ingredients: the real universe we measure is not the simplest one we could imagine.
9781400874507 Fearful Symmetry Zee, A. Princeton Science Library Popular science, Physics, History of science 2017 376 <b>An engaging exploration of beauty in physics, with a foreword by Nobel Prize–winning physicist Roger Penrose</b>

The concept of symmetry has widespread manifestations and many diverse applications—from architecture to mathematics to science. Yet, as twentieth-century physics has revealed, symmetry has a special, central role in nature, one that is occasionally and enigmatically violated. <i>Fearful Symmetry</i> brings the incredible discoveries of the juxtaposition of symmetry and asymmetry in contemporary physics within everyone's grasp. A. Zee, a distinguished physicist and skillful expositor, tells the exciting story of how contemporary theoretical physicists are following Einstein in their search for the beauty and simplicity of Nature. Animated by a sense of reverence and whimsy, <i>Fearful Symmetry</i> describes the majestic sweep and accomplishments of twentieth-century physics—one of the greatest chapters in the intellectual history of humankind.
9781400874347 Symmetry Weyl, Hermann Princeton Science Library Materials / States of matter, Chemical physics, Applied physics, Statistical physics, Particle & high-energy physics, Plasma physics 2017 176 <i>Symmetry</i> is a classic study of symmetry in mathematics, the sciences, nature, and art from one of the twentieth century's greatest mathematicians. Hermann Weyl explores the concept of symmetry beginning with the idea that it represents a harmony of proportions, and gradually departs to examine its more abstract varieties and manifestations—as bilateral, translatory, rotational, ornamental, and crystallographic. Weyl investigates the general abstract mathematical idea underlying all these special forms, using a wealth of illustrations as support. <i>Symmetry</i> is a work of seminal relevance that explores the great variety of applications and importance of symmetry.
9781400880539 Summing It Up Ash, Avner,Gross, Robert Number theory, Mathematics 2018 248 <b>The power and properties of numbers, from basic addition and sums of squares to cutting-edge theory</b>

We use addition on a daily basis—yet how many of us stop to truly consider the enormous and remarkable ramifications of this mathematical activity? <i>Summing It Up</i> uses addition as a springboard to present a fascinating and accessible look at numbers and number theory, and how we apply beautiful numerical properties to answer math problems. Mathematicians Avner Ash and Robert Gross explore addition's most basic characteristics as well as the addition of squares and other powers before moving onward to infinite series, modular forms, and issues at the forefront of current mathematical research.

Ash and Gross tailor their succinct and engaging investigations for math enthusiasts of all backgrounds. Employing college algebra, the first part of the book examines such questions as, can all positive numbers be written as a sum of four perfect squares? The second section of the book incorporates calculus and examines infinite series—long sums that can only be defined by the concept of limit, as in the example of 1+1/2+1/4+. . .=? With the help of some group theory and geometry, the third section ties together the first two parts of the book through a discussion of modular forms—the analytic functions on the upper half-plane of the complex numbers that have growth and transformation properties. Ash and Gross show how modular forms are indispensable in modern number theory, for example in the proof of Fermat's Last Theorem.

Appropriate for numbers novices as well as college math majors, <i>Summing It Up</i> delves into mathematics that will enlighten anyone fascinated by numbers.
9781400880560 Elements of Mathematics Stillwell, John   Mathematical foundations, Philosophy of mathematics, History of mathematics, History of science, Mathematics & science 2018 440 <b>An exciting look at the world of elementary mathematics</b>

<i>Elements of Mathematics</i> takes readers on a fascinating tour that begins in elementary mathematics—but, as John Stillwell shows, this subject is not as elementary or straightforward as one might think. Not all topics that are part of today's elementary mathematics were always considered as such, and great mathematical advances and discoveries had to occur in order for certain subjects to become "elementary." Stillwell examines elementary mathematics from a distinctive twenty-first-century viewpoint and describes not only the beauty and scope of the discipline, but also its limits.

From Gaussian integers to propositional logic, Stillwell delves into arithmetic, computation, algebra, geometry, calculus, combinatorics, probability, and logic. He discusses how each area ties into more advanced topics to build mathematics as a whole. Through a rich collection of basic principles, vivid examples, and interesting problems, Stillwell demonstrates that elementary mathematics becomes advanced with the intervention of infinity. Infinity has been observed throughout mathematical history, but the recent development of "reverse mathematics" confirms that infinity is essential for proving well-known theorems, and helps to determine the nature, contours, and borders of elementary mathematics.

<i>Elements of Mathematics</i> gives readers, from high school students to professional mathematicians, the highlights of elementary mathematics and glimpses of the parts of math beyond its boundaries.
9781400880959 The New Worlds of Thomas Robert Malthus Bashford, Alison,Chaplin, Joyce E. General & world history, History of ideas, Population & demography, Social research & statistics 2018 368 <b>An ambitious global history that fundamentally alters our understanding of Malthus</b>

<i>The New Worlds of Thomas Robert Malthus</i> is a sweeping global and intellectual history that radically recasts our understanding of Malthus's <i>Essay on the Principle of Population</i>, the most famous book on population ever written or ever likely to be. Malthus's <i>Essay</i> is also persistently misunderstood. First published anonymously in 1798, the <i>Essay</i> systematically argues that population growth tends to outpace its means of subsistence unless kept in check by factors such as disease, famine, or war, or else by lowering the birth rate through such means as sexual abstinence.

Challenging the widely held notion that Malthus's <i>Essay</i> was a product of the British and European context in which it was written, Alison Bashford and Joyce Chaplin demonstrate that it was the new world, as well as the old, that fundamentally shaped Malthus's ideas. They explore what the Atlantic and Pacific new worlds—from the Americas and the Caribbean to New Zealand and Tahiti—meant to Malthus, and how he treated them in his <i>Essay</i>. Bashford and Chaplin reveal how Malthus, long vilified as the scourge of the English poor, drew from his principle of population to conclude that the extermination of native populations by European settlers was unjust.

Elegantly written and forcefully argued, <i>The New Worlds of Thomas Robert Malthus</i> relocates Malthus's <i>Essay</i> from the British economic and social context that has dominated its reputation to the colonial and global history that inspired its genesis.
9781400885435 The Mathematics of Shock Reflection-Diffraction and von Neumann's Conjectures Chen, Gui-Qiang,Feldman, Mikhail Annals of Mathematics Studies Differential calculus & equations, Mathematical physics 2018 832 This book offers a survey of recent developments in the analysis of shock reflection-diffraction, a detailed presentation of original mathematical proofs of von Neumann's conjectures for potential flow, and a collection of related results and new techniques in the analysis of partial differential equations (PDEs), as well as a set of fundamental open problems for further development.

Shock waves are fundamental in nature. They are governed by the Euler equations or their variants, generally in the form of nonlinear conservation laws—PDEs of divergence form. When a shock hits an obstacle, shock reflection-diffraction configurations take shape. To understand the fundamental issues involved, such as the structure and transition criteria of different configuration patterns, it is essential to establish the global existence, regularity, and structural stability of shock reflection-diffraction solutions. This involves dealing with several core difficulties in the analysis of nonlinear PDEs—mixed type, free boundaries, and corner singularities—that also arise in fundamental problems in diverse areas such as continuum mechanics, differential geometry, mathematical physics, and materials science. Presenting recently developed approaches and techniques, which will be useful for solving problems with similar difficulties, this book opens up new research opportunities.
9781400888283 Ten Great Ideas about Chance Diaconis, Persi,Skyrms, Brian Probability & statistics, Philosophy of mathematics, Mathematics 2018 272 <b>A fascinating account of the breakthrough ideas that transformed probability and statistics</b>

In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, gamblers and mathematicians transformed the idea of chance from a mystery into the discipline of probability, setting the stage for a series of breakthroughs that enabled or transformed innumerable fields, from gambling, mathematics, statistics, economics, and finance to physics and computer science. This book tells the story of ten great ideas about chance and the thinkers who developed them, tracing the philosophical implications of these ideas as well as their mathematical impact.

Persi Diaconis and Brian Skyrms begin with Gerolamo Cardano, a sixteenth-century physician, mathematician, and professional gambler who helped develop the idea that chance actually can be measured. They describe how later thinkers showed how the judgment of chance also can be measured, how frequency is related to chance, and how chance, judgment, and frequency could be unified. Diaconis and Skyrms explain how Thomas Bayes laid the foundation of modern statistics, and they explore David Hume’s problem of induction, Andrey Kolmogorov’s general mathematical framework for probability, the application of computability to chance, and why chance is essential to modern physics. A final idea—that we are psychologically predisposed to error when judging chance—is taken up through the work of Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky.

Complete with a brief probability refresher, <i>Ten Great Ideas about Chance </i>is certain to be a hit with anyone who wants to understand the secrets of probability and how they were discovered.
9781400888290 The Little Book of Black Holes Gubser, Steven S.,Pretorius, Frans Science Essentials Popular science, Astrophysics, Cosmology & the universe, Astronomy,  space & time, Relativity physics, Gravity 2018 200 <b>Dive into a mind-bending exploration of the physics of black holes</b>

Black holes, predicted by Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity more than a century ago, have long intrigued scientists and the public with their bizarre and fantastical properties. Although Einstein understood that black holes were mathematical solutions to his equations, he never accepted their physical reality—a viewpoint many shared. This all changed in the 1960s and 1970s, when a deeper conceptual understanding of black holes developed just as new observations revealed the existence of quasars and X-ray binary star systems, whose mysterious properties could be explained by the presence of black holes. Black holes have since been the subject of intense research—and the physics governing how they behave and affect their surroundings is stranger and more mind-bending than any fiction.

After introducing the basics of the special and general theories of relativity, this book describes black holes both as astrophysical objects and theoretical “laboratories” in which physicists can test their understanding of gravitational, quantum, and thermal physics. From Schwarzschild black holes to rotating and colliding black holes, and from gravitational radiation to Hawking radiation and information loss, Steven Gubser and Frans Pretorius use creative thought experiments and analogies to explain their subject accessibly. They also describe the decades-long quest to observe the universe in gravitational waves, which recently resulted in the LIGO observatories’ detection of the distinctive gravitational wave “chirp” of two colliding black holes—the first direct observation of black holes’ existence.

<i>The Little Book of Black Holes</i> takes readers deep into the mysterious heart of the subject, offering rare clarity of insight into the physics that makes black holes simple yet destructive manifestations of geometric destiny.
9781400888559 The Best Writing on Mathematics 2017 The Best Writing on Mathematics Mathematics, Anthologies (non-poetry) 2018 248 <b>The year's finest mathematics writing from around the world</b>

This annual anthology brings together the year’s finest mathematics writing from around the world. Featuring promising new voices alongside some of the foremost names in the field, <i>The Best Writing on Mathematics 2017</i> makes available to a wide audience many articles not easily found anywhere else—and you don’t need to be a mathematician to enjoy them. These writings offer surprising insights into the nature, meaning, and practice of mathematics today. They delve into the history, philosophy, teaching, and everyday occurrences of math, and take readers behind the scenes of today’s hottest mathematical debates.

Here Evelyn Lamb describes the excitement of searching for incomprehensibly large prime numbers, Jeremy Gray speculates about who would have won math’s highest prize—the Fields Medal—in the nineteenth century, and Philip Davis looks at mathematical results and artifacts from a business and marketing viewpoint. In other essays, Noson Yanofsky explores the inherent limits of knowledge in mathematical thinking, Jo Boaler and Lang Chen reveal why finger-counting enhances children’s receptivity to mathematical ideas, and Carlo Séquin and Raymond Shiau attempt to discover how the Renaissance painter Fra Luca Pacioli managed to convincingly depict his famous rhombicuboctahedron, a twenty-six-sided Archimedean solid. And there’s much, much more.

In addition to presenting the year’s most memorable writings on mathematics, this must-have anthology includes a bibliography of other notable writings and an introduction by the editor, Mircea Pitici. This book belongs on the shelf of anyone interested in where math has taken us—and where it is headed.
9781400888689 The Formative Years of Relativity Gutfreund, Hanoch,Renn, Jürgen   Relativity physics, History of science, Philosophy of science, Physics 2018 432 First published in 1922 and based on lectures delivered in May 1921, Albert Einstein’s <i>The Meaning of Relativity</i> offered an overview and explanation of the then new and controversial theory of relativity. The work would go on to become a monumental classic, printed in numerous editions and translations worldwide. Now, <i>The Formative Years of Relativity</i> introduces Einstein’s masterpiece to new audiences. This beautiful volume contains Einstein’s insightful text, accompanied by important historical materials and commentary looking at the origins and development of general relativity. Hanoch Gutfreund and Jürgen Renn provide fresh, original perspectives, placing Einstein’s achievements into a broader context for all readers.

In this book, Gutfreund and Renn tell the rich story behind the early reception, spread, and consequences of Einstein’s ideas during the formative years of general relativity in the late 1910s and 1920s. They show that relativity’s meaning changed radically throughout the nascent years of its development, and they describe in detail the transformation of Einstein’s work from the esoteric pursuit of one individual communicating with a handful of colleagues into the preoccupation of a growing community of physicists, astronomers, mathematicians, and philosophers.

This handsome edition quotes extensively from Einstein’s correspondence and reproduces historical documents such as newspaper articles and letters. Inserts are featured in the main text giving concise explanations of basic concepts, and short biographical notes and photographs of some of Einstein’s contemporaries are included. The first-ever English translations of two of Einstein’s popular Princeton lectures are featured at the book’s end.
9781400888610 The Strength in Numbers Bozeman, Barry,Youtie, Jan Industrial applications of scientific research & technological innovation, Impact of science & technology on society 2018 248 Once upon a time, it was the lone scientist who achieved brilliant breakthroughs. No longer. Today, science is done in teams of as many as hundreds of researchers who may be scattered across continents and represent a range of hierarchies. These collaborations can be powerful, but they demand new ways of thinking about scientific research. When three hundred people make a discovery, who gets credit? How can all collaborators’ concerns be adequately addressed? Why do certain STEM collaborations succeed while others fail?

Focusing on the nascent science of team science,<i>The Strength in Numbers</i> synthesizes the results of the most far-reaching study to date on collaboration among university scientists to provide answers to such questions. Drawing on a national survey with responses from researchers at more than one hundred universities, anonymous web posts, archival data, and extensive interviews with active scientists and engineers in over a dozen STEM disciplines, Barry Bozeman and Jan Youtie set out a framework to characterize different types of collaboration and their likely outcomes. They also develop a model to define research effectiveness, which assesses factors internal and external to collaborations. They advance what they have found to be the gold standard of science collaborations: consultative collaboration management. This strategy—which codifies methods of consulting all team members on a study’s key points and incorporates their preferences and values—empowers managers of STEM collaborations to optimize the likelihood of their effectiveness.

<i>The Strength in Numbers</i> is a milestone in the science of team science and an indispensable guide for scientists interested in maximizing collaborative success.
9781400889037 Reverse Mathematics Stillwell, John   History of mathematics, Philosophy of mathematics, Mathematics, Mathematical logic, History of science, Calculus & mathematical analysis 2018 200 This book presents reverse mathematics to a general mathematical audience for the first time. Reverse mathematics is a new field that answers some old questions. In the two thousand years that mathematicians have been deriving theorems from axioms, it has often been asked: which axioms are needed to prove a given theorem? Only in the last two hundred years have some of these questions been answered, and only in the last forty years has a systematic approach been developed. In <i>Reverse Mathematics</i>, John Stillwell gives a representative view of this field, emphasizing basic analysis—finding the “right axioms” to prove fundamental theorems—and giving a novel approach to logic.

Stillwell introduces reverse mathematics historically, describing the two developments that made reverse mathematics possible, both involving the idea of arithmetization. The first was the nineteenth-century project of arithmetizing analysis, which aimed to define all concepts of analysis in terms of natural numbers and sets of natural numbers. The second was the twentieth-century arithmetization of logic and computation. Thus arithmetic in some sense underlies analysis, logic, and computation. Reverse mathematics exploits this insight by viewing analysis as arithmetic extended by axioms about the existence of infinite sets. Remarkably, only a small number of axioms are needed for reverse mathematics, and, for each basic theorem of analysis, Stillwell finds the “right axiom” to prove it.

By using a minimum of mathematical logic in a well-motivated way, <i>Reverse Mathematics</i> will engage advanced undergraduates and all mathematicians interested in the foundations of mathematics.
9781400888986 Our Cosmic Habitat Rees, Martin Princeton Science Library Cosmology & the universe, Astrophysics 2018 224 Our universe seems strangely ''biophilic,'' or hospitable to life. Is this happenstance, providence, or coincidence? According to cosmologist Martin Rees, the answer depends on the answer to another question, the one posed by Einstein's famous remark: ''What interests me most is whether God could have made the world differently.'' This highly engaging book explores the fascinating consequences of the answer being ''yes.'' Rees explores the notion that our universe is just a part of a vast ''multiverse,'' or ensemble of universes, in which most of the other universes are lifeless. What we call the laws of nature would then be no more than local bylaws, imposed in the aftermath of our own Big Bang. In this scenario, our cosmic habitat would be a special, possibly unique universe where the prevailing laws of physics allowed life to emerge.

 Rees begins by exploring the nature of our solar system and examining a range of related issues such as whether our universe is or isn't infinite. He asks, for example: How likely is life? How credible is the Big Bang theory? Rees then peers into the long-range cosmic future before tracing the causal chain backward to the beginning. He concludes by trying to untangle the paradoxical notion that our entire universe, stretching 10 billion light-years in all directions, emerged from an infinitesimal speck.

 As Rees argues, we may already have intimations of other universes. But the fate of the multiverse concept depends on the still-unknown bedrock nature of space and time on scales a trillion trillion times smaller than atoms, in the realm governed by the quantum physics of gravity. Expanding our comprehension of the cosmos, Our Cosmic Habitat will be read and enjoyed by all those--scientists and nonscientists alike--who are as fascinated by the universe we inhabit as is the author himself.
9781400888207 Asteroseismic Data Analysis Basu, Sarbani,Chaplin, William J. Princeton Series in Modern Observational Astronomy Astrophysics, Astronomy,  space & time, Cosmology & the universe, Galaxies & stars 2018 352 Studies of stars and stellar populations, and the discovery and characterization of exoplanets, are being revolutionized by new satellite and telescope observations of unprecedented quality and scope. Some of the most significant advances have been in the field of asteroseismology, the study of stars by observation of their oscillations. <i>Asteroseismic Data Analysis</i> gives a comprehensive technical introduction to this discipline. This book not only helps students and researchers learn about asteroseismology; it also serves as an essential instruction manual for those entering the field.

The book presents readers with the foundational techniques used in the analysis and interpretation of asteroseismic data on cool stars that show solar-like oscillations. The techniques have been refined, and in some cases developed, to analyze asteroseismic data collected by the NASA <i>Kepler</i> mission. Topics range from the analysis of time-series observations to extract seismic data for stars to the use of those data to determine global and internal properties of the stars. Reading lists and problem sets are provided, and data necessary for the problem sets are available online.

The first book to describe in detail the different techniques used to analyze the data on stellar oscillations, <i>Asteroseismic Data Analysis</i> offers an invaluable window into the hearts of stars.
<ul><li>Introduces the asteroseismic study of stars and the theory of stellar oscillations</li><li>Describes the analysis of observational (time-domain) data</li><li>Examines how seismic parameters are extracted from observations</li><li>Explores how stellar properties are determined from seismic data</li><li>Looks at the “inverse problem,” where frequencies are used to infer internal structures of stars</li></ul>
9781400889136 The Mathematics of Various Entertaining Subjects Hobbies,  quizzes & games, Mathematics, History of mathematics 2018 408 The history of mathematics is filled with major breakthroughs resulting from solutions to recreational problems. Problems of interest to gamblers led to the modern theory of probability, for example, and surreal numbers were inspired by the game of Go. Yet even with such groundbreaking findings and a wealth of popular-level books, research in recreational mathematics has often been neglected. <i>The Mathematics of Various Entertaining Subjects</i> now returns with a brand-new compilation of fascinating problems and solutions in recreational mathematics.

This latest volume gathers together the top experts in recreational math and presents a compelling look at board games, card games, dice, toys, computer games, and much more. The book is divided into five parts: puzzles and brainteasers, geometry and topology, graph theory, games of chance, and computational complexity. Readers will discover what origami, roulette wheels, and even the game of Trouble can teach about math. Essays contain new results, and the contributors include short expositions on their topic’s background, providing a framework for understanding the relationship between serious mathematics and recreational games. Mathematical areas explored include combinatorics, logic, graph theory, linear algebra, geometry, topology, computer science, operations research, probability, game theory, and music theory.

Investigating an eclectic mix of games and puzzles, <i>The Mathematics of Various Entertaining Subjects</i> is sure to entertain, challenge, and inspire academic mathematicians and avid math enthusiasts alike.
9781400888252 Scalar, Vector, and Matrix Mathematics Bernstein, Dennis S.   Mathematics 2018 1600 <b>The essential reference book on matrices—now fully updated and expanded, with new material on scalar and vector mathematics</b>

Since its initial publication, this book has become the essential reference for users of matrices in all branches of engineering, science, and applied mathematics. In this revised and expanded edition, Dennis Bernstein combines extensive material on scalar and vector mathematics with the latest results in matrix theory to make this the most comprehensive, current, and easy-to-use book on the subject.

Each chapter describes relevant theoretical background followed by specialized results. Hundreds of identities, inequalities, and facts are stated clearly and rigorously, with cross-references, citations to the literature, and helpful comments. Beginning with preliminaries on sets, logic, relations, and functions, this unique compendium covers all the major topics in matrix theory, such as transformations and decompositions, polynomial matrices, generalized inverses, and norms. Additional topics include graphs, groups, convex functions, polynomials, and linear systems. The book also features a wealth of new material on scalar inequalities, geometry, combinatorics, series, integrals, and more.

Now more comprehensive than ever, <i>Scalar, Vector, and Matrix Mathematics</i> includes a detailed list of symbols, a summary of notation and conventions, an extensive bibliography and author index with page references, and an exhaustive subject index.
<ul><li>Fully updated and expanded with new material on scalar and vector mathematics</li><li>Covers the latest results in matrix theory</li><li>Provides a list of symbols and a summary of conventions for easy and precise use</li><li>Includes an extensive bibliography with back-referencing plus an author index</li></ul>
9781400890255 Brave New Arctic Serreze, Mark C. Science Essentials Climate change, Environmental science,  engineering & technology, Meteorology & climatology, History of science 2018 264 <b>An insider account of how researchers unraveled the  mystery of the thawing Arctic</b>

In the 1990s, researchers in the Arctic noticed that floating summer sea ice had begun receding. This was accompanied by shifts in ocean circulation and unexpected changes in weather patterns throughout the world. The Arctic's perennially frozen ground, known as permafrost, was warming, and treeless tundra was being overtaken by shrubs. What was going on? <i>Brave New Arctic</i> is Mark Serreze's riveting firsthand account of how scientists from around the globe came together to find answers.

In a sweeping tale of discovery spanning three decades, Serreze describes how puzzlement turned to concern and astonishment as researchers came to understand that the Arctic of old was quickly disappearing--with potentially devastating implications for the entire planet. Serreze is a world-renowned Arctic geographer and climatologist who has conducted fieldwork on ice caps, glaciers, sea ice, and tundra in the Canadian and Alaskan Arctic. In this must-read book, he blends invaluable insights from his own career with those of other pioneering scientists who, together, ushered in an exciting new age of Arctic exploration. Along the way, he accessibly describes the cutting-edge science that led to the alarming conclusion that the Arctic is rapidly thawing due to climate change, that humans are to blame, and that the global consequences are immense.

A gripping scientific adventure story, <i>Brave New Arctic</i> shows how the Arctic's extraordinary transformation serves as a harbinger of things to come if we fail to meet the challenge posed by a warming Earth.
9781400890392 Totally Random Bub, Tanya,Bub, Jeffrey   Quantum physics (quantum mechanics & quantum field theory), Philosophy of science, Graphic novels 2018 272 <b>An eccentric comic  about the central mystery  of quantum mechanics</b>

<i>Totally Random</i> is a comic for the serious reader who wants to really understand the central mystery of quantum mechanics--entanglement: what it is, what it means, and what you can do with it.

Measure two entangled particles separately, and the outcomes are totally random. But compare the outcomes, and the particles seem as if they are instantaneously influencing each other at a distance—even if they are light-years apart. This, in a nutshell, is entanglement, and if it seems weird, then this book is for you. <i>Totally Random</i> is a graphic experiential narrative that unpacks the deep and insidious significance of the curious correlation between entangled particles to deliver a gut-feel glimpse of a world that is not what it seems. See for yourself how entanglement has led some of the greatest thinkers of our time to talk about crazy-sounding stuff like faster-than-light signaling, many worlds, and cats that are both dead and alive. Find out why it remains one of science's most paradigm-shaking discoveries. Join Niels Bohr's therapy session with the likes of Einstein, Schrödinger, and other luminaries and let go of your commonsense notion of how the world works. Use your new understanding of entanglement to do the seemingly impossible, like beat the odds in the quantum casino, or quantum encrypt a message to evade the Sphinx's all-seeing eye. But look out, or you might just get teleported back to the beginning of the book!

A fresh and subversive look at our quantum world with some seriously funny stuff, <i>Totally Random</i> delivers a real understanding of entanglement that will completely change the way you think about the nature of physical reality.
9781400889952 The Travel Diaries of Albert Einstein Einstein, Albert History of science, Biography: science,  technology & medicine 2018 384 <b>The first publication of Albert Einstein’s travel diary to the Far East and Middle East</b>

In the fall of 1922, Albert Einstein, along with his then-wife, Elsa Einstein, embarked on a five-and-a-half-month voyage to the Far East and Middle East, regions that the renowned physicist had never visited before. Einstein's lengthy itinerary consisted of stops in Hong Kong and Singapore, two brief stays in China, a six-week whirlwind lecture tour of Japan, a twelve-day tour of Palestine, and a three-week visit to Spain. This handsome edition makes available, for the first time, the complete journal that Einstein kept on this momentous journey. 

The telegraphic-style diary entries--quirky, succinct, and at times irreverent—record Einstein's musings on science, philosophy, art, and politics, as well as his immediate impressions and broader thoughts on such events as his inaugural lecture at the future site of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, a garden party hosted by the Japanese Empress, an audience with the King of Spain, and meetings with other prominent colleagues and statesmen. Entries also contain passages that reveal Einstein's stereotyping of members of various nations and raise questions about his attitudes on race. This beautiful edition features stunning facsimiles of the diary's pages, accompanied by an English translation, an extensive historical introduction, numerous illustrations, and annotations. Supplementary materials include letters, postcards, speeches, and articles, a map of the voyage, a chronology, a bibliography, and an index.  

Einstein would go on to keep a journal for all succeeding trips abroad, and this first volume of his travel diaries offers an initial, intimate glimpse into a brilliant mind encountering the great, wide world.
9781400890309 On Gravity Zee, A.   Gravity, Relativity physics, Quantum physics (quantum mechanics & quantum field theory), Electricity,  electromagnetism & magnetism 2018 192 <b>A brief introduction to gravity through Einstein’s general theory of relativity</b>

Of the four fundamental forces of nature, gravity might be the least understood and yet the one with which we are most intimate. From the months each of us spent suspended in the womb anticipating birth to the moments when we wait for sleep to transport us to other realities, we are always aware of gravity. In <i>On Gravity</i>, physicist A. Zee combines profound depth with incisive accessibility to take us on an original and compelling tour of Einstein's general theory of relativity. 

Inspired by Einstein's audacious suggestion that spacetime could ripple, Zee begins with the stunning discovery of gravity waves. He goes on to explain how gravity can be understood in comparison to other classical field theories, presents the idea of curved spacetime and the action principle, and explores cutting-edge topics, including black holes and Hawking radiation. Zee travels as far as the theory reaches, leaving us with tantalizing hints of the utterly unknown, from the intransigence of quantum gravity to the mysteries of dark matter and energy.

Concise and precise, and infused with Zee's signature warmth and freshness of style, <i>On Gravity </i>opens a unique pathway to comprehending relativity and gaining deep insight into gravity, spacetime, and the workings of the universe.
9781400890118 Small Wars, Big Data Berman, Eli,Felter, Joseph H.,Shapiro, Jacob N. Peace studies & conflict resolution, International relations, Geopolitics, Defence strategy,  planning & research 2018 408 <b>How a new understanding of warfare can help the military fight today’s conflicts more effectively</b>

The way wars are fought has changed starkly over the past sixty years. International military campaigns used to play out between large armies at central fronts. Today's conflicts find major powers facing rebel insurgencies that deploy elusive methods, from improvised explosives to terrorist attacks. <i>Small Wars, Big Data</i> presents a transformative understanding of these contemporary confrontations and how they should be fought. The authors show that a revolution in the study of conflict--enabled by vast data, rich qualitative evidence, and modern methods—yields new insights into terrorism, civil wars, and foreign interventions. Modern warfare is not about struggles over territory but over people; civilians—and the information they might choose to provide—can turn the tide at critical junctures.

The authors draw practical lessons from the past two decades of conflict in locations ranging from Latin America and the Middle East to Central and Southeast Asia. Building an information-centric understanding of insurgencies, the authors examine the relationships between rebels, the government, and civilians. This approach serves as a springboard for exploring other aspects of modern conflict, including the suppression of rebel activity, the role of mobile communications networks, the links between aid and violence, and why conventional military methods might provide short-term success but undermine lasting peace. Ultimately the authors show how the stronger side can almost always win the villages, but why that does not guarantee winning the war.

<i>Small Wars, Big Data</i> provides groundbreaking perspectives for how small wars can be better strategized and favorably won to the benefit of the local population.
9781400890507 Genetics in the Madhouse Porter, Theodore M.   History: specific events & topics, History of science, Medical genetics, Hereditary diseases & disorders, History of medicine, Psychology 2018 464 <b>The untold story of how hereditary data in mental hospitals gave rise to the  science of human heredity</b>

In the early 1800s, a century before there was any concept of the gene, physicians in insane asylums began to record causes of madness in their admission books. Almost from the beginning, they pointed to heredity as the most important of these causes. As doctors and state officials steadily lost faith in the capacity of asylum care to stem the terrible increase of insanity, they began emphasizing the need to curb the reproduction of the insane. They became obsessed with identifying weak or tainted families and anticipating the outcomes of their marriages. <i>Genetics in the Madhouse</i> is the untold story of how the collection and sorting of hereditary data in mental hospitals, schools for "feebleminded" children, and prisons gave rise to a new science of human heredity.

In this compelling book, Theodore Porter draws on untapped archival evidence from across Europe and North America to bring to light the hidden history behind modern genetics. He looks at the institutional use of pedigree charts, censuses of mental illness, medical-social surveys, and other data techniques--innovative quantitative practices that were worked out in the madhouse long before the manipulation of DNA became possible in the lab. Porter argues that asylum doctors developed many of the ideologies and methods of what would come to be known as eugenics, and deepens our appreciation of the moral issues at stake in data work conducted on the border of subjectivity and science.

A bold rethinking of asylum work, <i>Genetics in the Madhouse</i> shows how heredity was a human science as well as a medical and biological one.
9781400889891 Music by the Numbers Maor, Eli History of mathematics, Music, History of science, Mathematics 2018 176 <b>How music has influenced mathematics, physics, and astronomy from ancient Greece to the twentieth century</b>

Music is filled with mathematical elements, the works of Bach are often said to possess a math-like logic, and Igor Stravinsky said "musical form is close to mathematics," while Arnold Schoenberg, Iannis Xenakis, and Karlheinz Stockhausen went further, writing music explicitly based on mathematical principles. Yet Eli Maor argues that music has influenced math at least as much as math has influenced music. Starting with Pythagoras, proceeding through the work of Schoenberg, and ending with contemporary string theory, <i>Music by the Numbers</i> tells a fascinating story of composers, scientists, inventors, and eccentrics who played a role in the age-old relationship between music, mathematics, and the sciences, especially physics and astronomy.

<i>Music by the Numbers</i> explores key moments in this history, particularly how problems originating in music have inspired mathematicians for centuries. Perhaps the most famous of these problems is the vibrating string, which pitted some of the greatest mathematicians of the eighteenth century against each other in a debate that lasted more than fifty years and that eventually led to the development of post-calculus mathematics. Other highlights in the book include a comparison between meter in music and metric in geometry, complete with examples of rhythmic patterns from Bach to Stravinsky, and an exploration of a suggestive twentieth-century development: the nearly simultaneous emergence of Einstein's theory of relativity and Schoenberg's twelve-tone system.

Weaving these compelling historical episodes with Maor's personal reflections as a mathematician and lover of classical music, <i>Music by the Numbers</i> will delight anyone who loves mathematics and music.
9781400889303 The Secret Life of Science Baumberg, Jeremy J.   Philosophy of science, Scientific equipment,  experiments & techniques, Science: general issues 2018 248 <b>A revealing and provocative look at the current state of  global science</b>

We take the advance of science as given. But how does science really work? Is it truly as healthy as we tend to think? How does the system itself shape what scientists do? <i>The Secret Life of Science</i> takes a clear-eyed and provocative look at the current state of global science, shedding light on a cutthroat and tightly tensioned enterprise that even scientists themselves often don't fully understand.

<i>The Secret Life of Science</i> is a dispatch from the front lines of modern science. It paints a startling picture of a complex scientific ecosystem that has become the most competitive free-market environment on the planet. It reveals how big this ecosystem really is, what motivates its participants, and who reaps the rewards. Are there too few scientists in the world or too many? Are some fields expanding at the expense of others? What science is shared or published, and who determines what the public gets to hear about? What is the future of science? Answering these and other questions, this controversial book explains why globalization is not necessarily good for science, nor is the continued growth in the number of scientists. It portrays a scientific community engaged in a race for limited resources that determines whether careers are lost or won, whose research visions become the mainstream, and whose vested interests end up in control.

<i>The Secret Life of Science</i> explains why this hypercompetitive environment is stifling the diversity of research and the resiliency of science itself, and why new ideas are needed to ensure that the scientific enterprise remains healthy and vibrant.
9781400889389 Braintrust Churchland, Patricia S. Princeton Science Library Popular science, Ethics & moral philosophy, Physiological & neuro-psychology,  biopsychology 2018 288 What is morality? Where does it come from? And why do most of us heed its call most of the time? In <i>Braintrust</i>, neurophilosophy pioneer Patricia Churchland argues that morality originates in the biology of the brain. She describes the "neurobiological platform of bonding" that, modified by evolutionary pressures and cultural values, has led to human styles of moral behavior. The result is a provocative genealogy of morals that asks us to reevaluate the priority given to religion, absolute rules, and pure reason in accounting for the basis of morality.

  Moral values, Churchland argues, are rooted in a behavior common to all mammals--the caring for offspring. The evolved structure, processes, and chemistry of the brain incline humans to strive not only for self-preservation but for the well-being of allied selves--first offspring, then mates, kin, and so on, in wider and wider "caring" circles. Separation and exclusion cause pain, and the company of loved ones causes pleasure; responding to feelings of social pain and pleasure, brains adjust their circuitry to local customs. In this way, caring is apportioned, conscience molded, and moral intuitions instilled. A key part of the story is oxytocin, an ancient body-and-brain molecule that, by decreasing the stress response, allows humans to develop the trust in one another necessary for the development of close-knit ties, social institutions, and morality.

  A major new account of what really makes us moral, <i>Braintrust</i> challenges us to reconsider the origins of some of our most cherished values.
9781400889686 Success through Failure Petroski, Henry Princeton Science Library Popular science, History of engineering & technology, Civil engineering,  surveying & building 2018 256 Design pervades our lives. Everything from drafting a PowerPoint presentation to planning a state-of-the-art bridge embodies this universal human activity. But what makes a great design? In this compelling and wide-ranging look at the essence of invention, distinguished engineer and author Henry Petroski argues that, time and again, we have built success on the back of failure--not through easy imitation of success.

 <i>Success through Failure</i> shows us that making something better--by carefully anticipating and thus averting failure--is what invention and design are all about. Petroski explores the nature of invention and the character of the inventor through an unprecedented range of both everyday and extraordinary examples--illustrated lectures, child-resistant packaging for drugs, national constitutions, medical devices, the world's tallest skyscrapers, long-span bridges, and more. Stressing throughout that there is no surer road to eventual failure than modeling designs solely on past successes, he sheds new light on spectacular failures, from the destruction of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge in 1940 and the space shuttle disasters of recent decades, to the collapse of the World Trade Center in 2001.

  Petroski also looks at the prehistoric and ancient roots of many modern designs. The historical record, especially as embodied in failures, reveals patterns of human social behavior that have implications for large structures like bridges and vast organizations like NASA. <i>Success through Failure</i>--which will fascinate anyone intrigued by design, including engineers, architects, and designers themselves--concludes by speculating on when we can expect the next major bridge failure to occur, and the kind of bridge most likely to be involved.
9781400889297 Causation in Science Ben-Menahem, Yemima History of science, Philosophy of science 2018 224 This book explores the role of causal constraints in science, shifting our attention from causal relations between individual events--the focus of most philosophical treatments of causation—to a broad family of concepts and principles generating constraints on possible change. Yemima Ben-Menahem looks at determinism, locality, stability, symmetry principles, conservation laws, and the principle of least action—causal constraints that serve to distinguish events and processes that our best scientific theories mandate or allow from those they rule out.

Ben-Menahem's approach reveals that causation is just as relevant to explaining why certain events fail to occur as it is to explaining events that do occur. She investigates the conceptual differences between, and interrelations of, members of the causal family, thereby clarifying problems at the heart of the philosophy of science. Ben-Menahem argues that the distinction between determinism and stability is pertinent to the philosophy of history and the foundations of statistical mechanics, and that the interplay of determinism and locality is crucial for understanding quantum mechanics. Providing historical perspective, she traces the causal constraints of contemporary science to traditional intuitions about causation, and demonstrates how the teleological appearance of some constraints is explained away in current scientific theories such as quantum mechanics.

<i>Causation in Science</i> represents a bold challenge to both causal eliminativism and causal reductionism—the notions that causation has no place in science and that higher-level causal claims are reducible to the causal claims of fundamental physics.
9781400890064 Molecular Machines Zocchi, Giovanni   Biophysics, Molecular biology, DNA & Genome, Nanotechnology, Materials science 2018 192 <i>Molecular Machines</i> presents a dynamic new approach to the physics of enzymes and DNA from the perspective of materials science. Unified around the concept of molecular deformability—how proteins and DNA stretch, fold, and change shape—this book describes the complex molecules of life from the innovative perspective of materials properties and dynamics, in contrast to structural or purely chemical approaches. It covers a wealth of topics, including nonlinear deformability of enzymes and DNA; the chemo-dynamic cycle of enzymes; supra-molecular constructions with internal stress; nano-rheology and viscoelasticity; and chemical kinetics, Brownian motion, and barrier crossing. Essential reading for researchers in materials science, engineering, and nanotechnology, the book also describes the landmark experiments that have established the materials properties and energy landscape of large biological molecules.

<i>Molecular Machines</i> is also ideal for the classroom. It gives graduate students a working knowledge of model building in statistical mechanics, making it an essential resource for tomorrow's experimentalists in this cutting-edge field. In addition, mathematical methods are introduced in the bio-molecular context—for example, DNA conformational transitions are used to illustrate the transfer matrix formalism. The result is a generalized approach to mathematical problem solving that enables students to apply their findings more broadly.

<i>Molecular Machines</i> represents the next leap forward in nanoscience, as researchers strive to harness proteins, enzymes, and DNA as veritable machines in medicine, technology, and beyond.
9781400890293 The Semiclassical Way to Dynamics and Spectroscopy Heller, Eric J. Quantum physics (quantum mechanics & quantum field theory), Dynamics & statics, Spectrum analysis,  spectrochemistry,  mass spectrometry, Quantum & theoretical chemistry 2018 472 <b>A graduate-level text that examines the semiclassical approach to quantum mechanics</b>

Physical systems have been traditionally described in terms of either classical or quantum mechanics. But in recent years, semiclassical methods have developed rapidly, providing deep physical insight and computational tools for quantum dynamics and spectroscopy. In this book, Eric Heller introduces and develops this subject, demonstrating its power with many examples.  

In the first half of the book, Heller covers relevant aspects of classical mechanics, building from them the semiclassical way through the semiclassical limit of the Feynman path integral. The second half of the book applies this approach to various kinds of spectroscopy, such as molecular spectroscopy and electron imaging and quantum dynamical systems with an emphasis on tunneling. Adopting a distinctly time-dependent viewpoint, Heller argues for semiclassical theories from experimental and theoretical vantage points valuable to research in physics and chemistry. Featuring more than two hundred figures, the book provides a geometric, phase-space, and coordinate-space pathway to greater understanding.

Filled with practical examples and applications, <i>The Semiclassical Way to Dynamics and Spectroscopy</i> is a comprehensive presentation of the tools necessary to successfully delve into this unique area of quantum mechanics.

<ul><li>A comprehensive approach for using classical mechanics to do quantum mechanics</li><li>More than two hundred figures to assist intuition</li><li>Emphasis on semiclassical Green function and wave packet perspective, as well as tunneling and spectroscopy</li><li>Chapters include quantum mechanics of classically chaotic systems, quantum scarring, and other modern dynamical topics</li></ul>
9781400889853 Lectures on the Infrared Structure of Gravity and Gauge Theory Strominger, Andrew   Gravity, Physics, Astrophysics 2018 200 <b>A short, graduate-level synthesis of recent developments in theoretical physics, from a pioneer in the field</b>

<i>Lectures on the Infrared Structure of Gravity and Gauge Theory</i> presents an accessible, graduate-level synthesis of a frontier research area in theoretical physics. Based on a popular Harvard University course taught by the author, this book gives a concise introduction to recent discoveries concerning the structure of gravity and gauge theory at very long distances. These discoveries unite three disparate but well-developed subjects in physics.

The first subject is the soft theorems, which were found by particle physicists in the 1950s to control the behavior of low-energy photons and are essential for all collider predictions. The second subject is asymptotic symmetries, found by general relativists in the 1960s to provide a surprising, infinite number of exact relations between distinct physical phenomena. The third subject is the memory effect, the measurement of which is sought in upcoming gravitational wave observations. An exploration of the physical and mathematical equivalence of these three subjects has provided a powerful new perspective on old results and led to a plethora of new results, involving symmetries of QED, gluon scattering amplitudes, flat-space holography in quantum gravity, black hole information, and beyond.

Uniquely connective and cutting-edge, <i>Lectures on the Infrared Structure of Gravity and Gauge Theory</i> takes students and scholars to the forefront of new developments in the discipline.
<ul><li>Materials are presented in a "lecture notes" style with problem sets included</li><li>Concise and accessible pedagogical approach</li><li>Topics include soft theorems, the memory effect, asymptotic symmetries with applications to QED, Yang-Mills theory, quantum gravity, and black holes</li></ul>
9780691184036 Ptolemy's Philosophy Feke, Jacqueline Philosophy of science, Popular science, Philosophy of mathematics 2018 256 <b>A stimulating intellectual history of Ptolemy's philosophy and his conception of a world in which mathematics reigns supreme</b>

The Greco-Roman mathematician Claudius Ptolemy is one of the most significant figures in the history of science. He is remembered today for his astronomy, but his philosophy is almost entirely lost to history. This groundbreaking book is the first to reconstruct Ptolemy’s general philosophical system—including his metaphysics, epistemology, and ethics—and to explore its relationship to astronomy, harmonics, element theory, astrology, cosmology, psychology, and theology.

In this stimulating intellectual history, Jacqueline Feke uncovers references to a complex and sophisticated philosophical agenda scattered among Ptolemy’s technical studies in the physical and mathematical sciences. She shows how he developed a philosophy that was radical and even subversive, appropriating ideas and turning them against the very philosophers from whom he drew influence. Feke reveals how Ptolemy’s unique system is at once a critique of prevailing philosophical trends and a conception of the world in which mathematics reigns supreme.

A compelling work of scholarship, <i>Ptolemy’s Philosophy</i> demonstrates how Ptolemy situated mathematics at the very foundation of all philosophy—theoretical and practical—and advanced the mathematical way of life as the true path to human perfection.
9780691184401 On the Future Rees, Martin   Philosophy of science, Biotechnology, Cosmology & the universe, Astrophysics, Artificial intelligence 2018 272 <b>A provocative and inspiring look at the future of humanity and science from world-renowned scientist and bestselling author Martin Rees</b>

Humanity has reached a critical moment. Our world is unsettled and rapidly changing, and we face existential risks over the next century. Various outcomes—good and bad—are possible. Yet our approach to the future is characterized by short-term thinking, polarizing debates, alarmist rhetoric, and pessimism. In this short, exhilarating book, renowned scientist and bestselling author Martin Rees argues that humanity’s prospects depend on our taking a very different approach to planning for tomorrow.

The future of humanity is bound to the future of science and hinges on how successfully we harness technological advances to address our challenges. If we are to use science to solve our problems while avoiding its dystopian risks, we must think rationally, globally, collectively, and optimistically about the long term. Advances in biotechnology, cybertechnology, robotics, and artificial intelligence—if pursued and applied wisely—could empower us to boost the developing and developed world and overcome the threats humanity faces on Earth, from climate change to nuclear war. At the same time, further advances in space science will allow humans to explore the solar system and beyond with robots and AI. But there is no “Plan B” for Earth—no viable alternative within reach if we do not care for our home planet.

Rich with fascinating insights into cutting-edge science and technology, this accessible book will captivate anyone who wants to understand the critical issues that will define the future of humanity on Earth and beyond.
9780691209265 Life on Mars Weintraub, David A. 2018 336 <b>The search for life on Mars—and the moral issues confronting us as we prepare to send humans there</b>
Does life exist on Mars? The question has captivated humans for centuries, but today it has taken on new urgency. As space agencies gear up to send the first manned missions to the Red Planet, we have a responsibility to think deeply about what kinds of life may already dwell there—and whether we have the right to invite ourselves in. Telling the complete story of our ongoing quest to answer one of the most tantalizing questions in astronomy, David Weintraub grapples with the profound moral and ethical questions confronting us as we prepare to introduce an unpredictable new life form—ourselves—into the Martian biosphere. Now with an afterword that discusses the most recent discoveries, <i>Life on Mars</i> explains what we need to know before we go.
9780691184098 History of Modern Psychology Jung, C. G. Philemon Foundation Series Analytical & Jungian psychology, History of science 2019 256 <b>Jung’s lectures on the history of psychology—in English for the first time</b>

Between 1933 and 1941, C. G. Jung delivered a series of public lectures at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich. Intended for a general audience, these lectures addressed a broad range of topics, from dream analysis to yoga and meditation. Here for the first time in English are Jung’s lectures on the history of modern psychology from the Enlightenment to his own time, delivered in the fall and winter of 1933–34.

In these inaugural lectures, Jung emphasizes the development of concepts of the unconscious and offers a comparative study of movements in French, German, British, and American thought. He also gives detailed analyses of Justinus Kerner’s <i>The Seeress of Prevorst</i> and Théodore Flournoy’s <i>From India to the Planet Mars</i>. These lectures present the history of psychology from the perspective of one of the field’s most legendary figures. They provide a unique opportunity to encounter Jung speaking for specialists and nonspecialists alike and are the primary source for understanding his late work.

Featuring cross-references to the Jung canon and explanations of concepts and terminology, <i>History of Modern Psychology</i> painstakingly reconstructs and translates these lectures from manuscripts, summaries, and recently recovered shorthand notes of attendees. It is the first volume of a series that will make the ETH lectures available in their entirety to English readers.
9780691184173 The Discrete Charm of the Machine Steiglitz, Ken History of mathematics, Philosophy of mathematics, Electronics engineering, Computer science, Mathematical theory of computation, Human-computer interaction, Technology: general issues 2019 256 <b>The genesis of the digital idea and why it transformed civilization</b>

A few short decades ago, we were informed by the smooth signals of analog television and radio; we communicated using our analog telephones; and we even computed with analog computers. Today our world is digital, built with zeros and ones. Why did this revolution occur? <i>The Discrete Charm of the Machine</i> explains, in an engaging and accessible manner, the varied physical and logical reasons behind this radical transformation.

The spark of individual genius shines through this story of innovation: the stored program of Jacquard’s loom; Charles Babbage’s logical branching; Alan Turing’s brilliant abstraction of the discrete machine; Harry Nyquist’s foundation for digital signal processing; Claude Shannon’s breakthrough insights into the meaning of information and bandwidth; and Richard Feynman’s prescient proposals for nanotechnology and quantum computing. Ken Steiglitz follows the progression of these ideas in the building of our digital world, from the internet and artificial intelligence to the edge of the unknown. Are questions like the famous traveling salesman problem truly beyond the reach of ordinary digital computers? Can quantum computers transcend these barriers? Does a mysterious magical power reside in the analog mechanisms of the brain? Steiglitz concludes by confronting the moral and aesthetic questions raised by the development of artificial intelligence and autonomous robots.

<i>The Discrete Charm of the Machine</i> examines why our information technology, the lifeblood of our civilization, became digital, and challenges us to think about where its future trajectory may lead.
9780691184425 A Well-Ordered Thing Gordin, Michael D.   History of science, Biography: science,  technology & medicine, Chemistry, European history 2019 384 Dmitrii Mendeleev (1834–1907) is a name we recognize, but perhaps only as the creator of the periodic table of elements. Generally, little else has been known about him. <i>A Well-Ordered Thing</i> is an authoritative biography of Mendeleev that draws a multifaceted portrait of his life for the first time. As Michael Gordin reveals, Mendeleev was not only a luminary in the history of science, he was also an astonishingly wide-ranging political and cultural figure. From his attack on Spiritualism to his failed voyage to the Arctic and his near-mythical hot-air balloon trip, this is the story of an extraordinary maverick. The ideals that shaped his work outside science also led Mendeleev to order the elements and, eventually, to engineer one of the most fascinating scientific developments of the nineteenth century. <i> A Well-Ordered Thing</i> is a classic work that tells the story of one of the world’s most important minds.
9780691184432 Weil's Conjecture for Function Fields Gaitsgory, Dennis,Lurie, Jacob Annals of Mathematics Studies Algebraic geometry, Number theory 2019 320 A central concern of number theory is the study of local-to-global principles, which describe the behavior of a global field <i>K</i> in terms of the behavior of various completions of <i>K</i>. This book looks at a specific example of a local-to-global principle: Weil’s conjecture on the Tamagawa number of a semisimple algebraic group <i>G</i> over <i>K</i>. In the case where <i>K</i> is the function field of an algebraic curve <i>X</i>, this conjecture counts the number of <i>G</i>-bundles on <i>X</i> (global information) in terms of the reduction of <i>G</i> at the points of <i>X</i> (local information). The goal of this book is to give a conceptual proof of Weil’s conjecture, based on the geometry of the moduli stack of <i>G</i>-bundles. Inspired by ideas from algebraic topology, it introduces a theory of factorization homology in the setting ℓ-adic sheaves. Using this theory, Dennis Gaitsgory and Jacob Lurie articulate a different local-to-global principle: a product formula that expresses the cohomology of the moduli stack of <i>G</i>-bundles (a global object) as a tensor product of local factors.

Using a version of the Grothendieck-Lefschetz trace formula, Gaitsgory and Lurie show that this product formula implies Weil’s conjecture. The proof of the product formula will appear in a sequel volume.
9780691184548 The Calculus Gallery Dunham, William Princeton Science Library Calculus, History of mathematics 2019 256 More than three centuries after its creation, calculus remains a dazzling intellectual achievement and the gateway to higher mathematics. This book charts its growth and development by sampling from the work of some of its foremost practitioners, beginning with Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in the late seventeenth century and continuing to Henri Lebesgue at the dawn of the twentieth. Now with a new preface by the author, this book documents the evolution of calculus from a powerful but logically chaotic subject into one whose foundations are thorough, rigorous, and unflinching—a story of genius triumphing over some of the toughest, subtlest problems imaginable. In touring <i>The Calculus Gallery</i>, we can see how it all came to be.
9780691184555 The Mathematics of Secrets Holden, Joshua Popular science, Data encryption, History of mathematics, Philosophy of mathematics, Applied mathematics 2019 392 <b>Explaining the mathematics of cryptography</b>

<i>The Mathematics of Secrets</i> takes readers on a fascinating tour of the mathematics behind cryptography—the science of sending secret messages. Using a wide range of historical anecdotes and real-world examples, Joshua Holden shows how mathematical principles underpin the ways that different codes and ciphers work. He focuses on both code making and code breaking and discusses most of the ancient and modern ciphers that are currently known. He begins by looking at substitution ciphers, and then discusses how to introduce flexibility and additional notation. Holden goes on to explore polyalphabetic substitution ciphers, transposition ciphers, connections between ciphers and computer encryption, stream ciphers, public-key ciphers, and ciphers involving exponentiation. He concludes by looking at the future of ciphers and where cryptography might be headed. <i>The Mathematics of Secrets </i>reveals the mathematics working stealthily in the science of coded messages.

A blog describing new developments and historical discoveries in cryptography related to the material in this book is accessible at <u></u>.
9780691185026 How to Fall Slower Than Gravity Nahin, Paul J.   Algebra, Calculus & mathematical analysis, Geometry, Trigonometry, Hobbies,  quizzes & games, Physics 2019 320 <b>An engaging collection of intriguing problems that shows you how to think like a mathematical physicist</b>

Paul Nahin is a master at explaining odd phenomena through straightforward mathematics. In this collection of twenty-six intriguing problems, he explores how mathematical physicists think. Always entertaining, the problems range from ancient catapult conundrums to the puzzling physics of a very peculiar material called NASTYGLASS—and from dodging trucks to why raindrops fall slower than the rate of gravity. The questions raised may seem impossible to answer at first and may require an unexpected twist in reasoning, but sometimes their solutions are surprisingly simple. Nahin’s goal, however, is always to guide readers—who will need only to have studied advanced high school math and physics—in expanding their mathematical thinking to make sense of the curiosities of the physical world.

The problems are in the first part of the book and the solutions are in the second, so that readers may challenge themselves to solve the questions on their own before looking at the explanations. The problems show how mathematics—including algebra, trigonometry, geometry, and calculus—can be united with physical laws to solve both real and theoretical problems. Historical anecdotes woven throughout the book bring alive the circumstances and people involved in some amazing discoveries and achievements.

More than a puzzle book, this work will immerse you in the delights of scientific history while honing your math skills.
9780691185033 Newton the Alchemist Newman, William History of science, Philosophy of science, Magic,  spells & alchemy, Physics, Philosophy of mathematics, British & Irish history 2019 560 <b>A book that finally demystifies Newton’s experiments in alchemy</b>

When Isaac Newton’s alchemical papers surfaced at a Sotheby’s auction in 1936, the quantity and seeming incoherence of the manuscripts were shocking. No longer the exemplar of Enlightenment rationality, the legendary physicist suddenly became “the last of the magicians.” <i>Newton the Alchemist</i> unlocks the secrets of Newton’s alchemical quest, providing a radically new understanding of the uncommon genius who probed nature at its deepest levels in pursuit of empirical knowledge.

In this evocative and superbly written book, William Newman blends in-depth analysis of newly available texts with laboratory replications of Newton’s actual experiments in alchemy. He does not justify Newton’s alchemical research as part of a religious search for God in the physical world, nor does he argue that Newton studied alchemy to learn about gravitational attraction. Newman traces the evolution of Newton’s alchemical ideas and practices over a span of more than three decades, showing how they proved fruitful in diverse scientific fields. A precise experimenter in the realm of “chymistry,” Newton put the riddles of alchemy to the test in his lab. He also used ideas drawn from the alchemical texts to great effect in his optical experimentation. In his hands, alchemy was a tool for attaining the material benefits associated with the philosopher’s stone and an instrument for acquiring scientific knowledge of the most sophisticated kind.

<i>Newton the Alchemist</i> provides rare insights into a man who was neither Enlightenment rationalist nor irrational magus, but rather an alchemist who sought through experiment and empiricism to alter nature at its very heart.
9780691185422 99 Variations on a Proof Ording, Philip   Mathematics, Algebraic geometry, History of mathematics, Philosophy of mathematics 2019 272 <b>An exploration of mathematical style through 99 different proofs of the same theorem</b>

This book offers a multifaceted perspective on mathematics by demonstrating 99 different proofs of the same theorem. Each chapter solves an otherwise unremarkable equation in distinct historical, formal, and imaginative styles that range from Medieval, Topological, and Doggerel to Chromatic, Electrostatic, and Psychedelic. With a rare blend of humor and scholarly aplomb, Philip Ording weaves these variations into an accessible and wide-ranging narrative on the nature and practice of mathematics.

Inspired by the experiments of the Paris-based writing group known as the Oulipo—whose members included Raymond Queneau, Italo Calvino, and Marcel Duchamp—Ording explores new ways to examine the aesthetic possibilities of mathematical activity. <i>99 Variations on a Proof</i> is a mathematical take on Queneau’s <i>Exercises in Style</i>, a collection of 99 retellings of the same story, and it draws unexpected connections to everything from mysticism and technology to architecture and sign language. Through diagrams, found material, and other imagery, Ording illustrates the flexibility and creative potential of mathematics despite its reputation for precision and rigor.

Readers will gain not only a bird’s-eye view of the discipline and its major branches but also new insights into its historical, philosophical, and cultural nuances. Readers, no matter their level of expertise, will discover in these proofs and accompanying commentary surprising new aspects of the mathematical landscape.
9780691185507 Adaptation and Natural Selection Williams, George Christopher Princeton Science Library Evolution 2019 328 Biological evolution is a fact—but the many conflicting theories of evolution remain controversial even today. When <i>Adaptation and Natural Selection</i> was first published in 1966, it struck a powerful blow against those who argued for the concept of group selection—the idea that evolution acts to select entire species rather than individuals. Williams’s famous work in favor of simple Darwinism over group selection has become a classic of science literature, valued for its thorough and convincing argument and its relevance to many fields outside of biology. Now with a new foreword by Richard Dawkins, <i>Adaptation and Natural Selection</i> is an essential text for understanding the nature of scientific debate.
9780691185668 Digital Cash Brunton, Finn   Monetary economics, Media studies, Social & cultural history, Popular culture 2019 272 <b>The fascinating untold story of digital cash and its creators—from experiments in the 1970s to the mania over Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies</b>

Bitcoin may appear to be a revolutionary form of digital cash without precedent or prehistory. In fact, it is only the best-known recent experiment in a long line of similar efforts going back to the 1970s. But the story behind cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and its blockchain technology has largely been untold—until now. In <i>Digital Cash</i>, Finn Brunton reveals how technological utopians and political radicals created experimental money to bring about their visions of the future: protecting privacy or bringing down governments, preparing for apocalypse or launching a civilization of innovation and abundance that would make its creators immortal.

The incredible story of the pioneers of cryptocurrency takes us from autonomous zones on the high seas to the world’s most valuable dump, from bank runs to idea coupons, from time travelers in a San Francisco bar to the pattern securing every twenty-dollar bill, and from marketplaces for dangerous secrets to a tank of frozen heads awaiting revival in the far future. Along the way, <i>Digital Cash</i> explores the hard questions and challenges that these innovators faced: How do we learn to trust and use different kinds of money? What makes digital objects valuable? How does currency prove itself as real to us? What would it take to make a digital equivalent to cash, something that could be created but not forged, exchanged but not copied, and which reveals nothing about its users?

Filled with marvelous characters, stories, and ideas, <i>Digital Cash</i> is an engaging and accessible account of the strange origins and remarkable technologies behind today’s cryptocurrency explosion.
9780691185743 On the Life of Galileo Gattei, Stefano History of science, Philosophy of science, Religion & science, Astronomy,  space & time, Biography: science,  technology & medicine 2019 440 <b>The first collection and translation into English of the earliest biographical accounts of Galileo’s life</b>

This unique critical edition presents key early biographical accounts of the life and work of Galileo Galilei (1564–1642), written by his close contemporaries. Collected and translated into English for the first time and supplemented by an introduction and incisive annotations by Stefano Gattei, these documents paint an incomparable firsthand picture of Galileo and offer rare insights into the construction of his public image and the complex intertwining of science, religion, and politics in seventeenth-century Italy.

Here in its entirety is Vincenzo Viviani’s <i>Historical Account</i>, an extensive and influential biography of Galileo written in 1654 by his last and most devoted pupil. Viviani’s text is accompanied by his “Letter to Prince Leopoldo de’ Medici on the Application of Pendulum to Clocks” (1659), his 1674 description of Galileo’s later works, and the long inscriptions on the façade of Viviani’s Florentine palace (1702). The collection also includes the “Adulatio perniciosa,” a Latin poem written in 1620 by Cardinal Maffeo Barberini—who, as Pope Urban VIII, would become Galileo’s prosecutor—as well as descriptive accounts that emerged from the Roman court and contemporary European biographers.

Featuring the original texts in Italian, Latin, and French with their English translations on facing pages, this invaluable book shows how Galileo’s pupils, friends, and critics shaped the Galileo myth for centuries to come, and brings together in one volume the primary sources needed to understand the legendary scientist in his time.
9780691185897 What's Next?   Annals of Mathematics Studies Mathematics & science, Topology, Geometry, Dynamics & statics 2019 472 William Thurston (1946–2012) was one of the great mathematicians of the twentieth century. He was a visionary whose extraordinary ideas revolutionized a broad range of areas of mathematics, from foliations, contact structures, and Teichmüller theory to automorphisms of surfaces, hyperbolic geometry, geometrization of 3-manifolds, geometric group theory, and rational maps. In addition, he discovered connections between disciplines that led to astonishing breakthroughs in mathematical understanding as well as the creation of entirely new fields. His far-reaching questions and conjectures led to enormous progress by other researchers. In <i>What's Next?</i>, many of today's leading mathematicians describe recent advances and future directions inspired by Thurston's transformative ideas.

This book brings together papers delivered by his colleagues and former students at "What's Next? The Mathematical Legacy of Bill Thurston," a conference held in June 2014 at Cornell University. It discusses Thurston's fundamental contributions to topology, geometry, and dynamical systems and includes many deep and original contributions to the field. Incisive and wide-ranging, the book explores how he introduced new ways of thinking about and doing mathematics—innovations that have had a profound and lasting impact on the mathematical community as a whole—and also features two papers based on Thurston's unfinished work in dynamics.
9780691188720 The Best Writing on Mathematics 2018 The Best Writing on Mathematics Mathematics, Reference works, Hobbies,  quizzes & games 2019 272 <b>The year’s finest mathematical writing from around the world</b>

This annual anthology brings together the year’s finest mathematics writing from around the world. Featuring promising new voices alongside some of the foremost names in the field, <i>The Best Writing on Mathematics 2018</i> makes available to a wide audience many pieces not easily found anywhere else—and you don’t need to be a mathematician to enjoy them. These essays delve into the history, philosophy, teaching, and everyday aspects of math, offering surprising insights into its nature, meaning, and practice—and taking readers behind the scenes of today’s hottest mathematical debates.

James Grime shows how to build subtly mischievous dice for playing slightly unfair games and Michael Barany traces how our appreciation of the societal importance of mathematics has developed since World War II. In other essays, Francis Su extolls the inherent values of learning, doing, and sharing mathematics, and Margaret Wertheim takes us on a mathematical exploration of the mind and the world—with glimpses at science, philosophy, music, art, and even crocheting. And there’s much, much more.

In addition to presenting the year’s most memorable math writing, this must-have anthology includes an introduction by the editor and a bibliography of other notable pieces on mathematics.

This is a must-read for anyone interested in where math has taken us—and where it is headed.
9780691188737 Prime Suspects Granville, Andrew,Granville, Jennifer   Number theory, Numerical analysis, Graphic novels: true stories & non-fiction 2019 232 <b>An outrageous graphic novel that investigates key concepts in mathematics</b>

Integers and permutations—two of the most basic mathematical objects—are born of different fields and analyzed with separate techniques. Yet when the Mathematical Sciences Investigation team of crack forensic mathematicians, led by Professor Gauss, begins its autopsies of the victims of two seemingly unrelated homicides, Arnie Integer and Daisy Permutation, they discover the most extraordinary similarities between the structures of each body.

<i>Prime Suspects</i> is a graphic novel that takes you on a voyage of forensic discovery, exploring some of the most fundamental ideas in mathematics. Travel with Detective von Neumann as he leaves no clue unturned, from shepherds’ huts in the Pyrenees to secret societies in the cafés of Paris, from the hidden codes in the music of the stones to the grisly discoveries in Finite Fields. Tremble at the ferocity of the believers in deep and rigid abstraction. Feel the frustration—and the excitement—of our young heroine, Emmy Germain, as she blazes a trail for women in mathematical research and learns from Professor Gauss, the greatest forensic detective of them all.

Beautifully drawn and exquisitely detailed, <i>Prime Suspects</i> is unique, astonishing, and witty—a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to experience mathematics like never before.
9780691188881 Making Up Your Own Mind Burger, Edward B. Mathematical logic, Puzzles & quizzes, Mathematics, Self-help & personal development 2019 136 <b>How you can become better at solving real-world problems by learning creative puzzle-solving skills</b>

We solve countless problems—big and small—every day. With so much practice, why do we often have trouble making simple decisions—much less arriving at optimal solutions to important questions? Are we doomed to this muddle—or is there a practical way to learn to think more effectively and creatively? In this enlightening, entertaining, and inspiring book, Edward Burger shows how we can become far better at solving real-world problems by learning creative puzzle-solving skills using simple, effective thinking techniques.

<i>Making Up Your Own Mind</i> teaches these techniques—including how to ask good questions, fail and try again, and change your mind—and then helps you practice them with fun verbal and visual puzzles. The goal is not to quickly solve each challenge but to come up with as many different ways of thinking about it as possible. As you see the puzzles in ever-greater depth, your mind will change, helping you become a more imaginative and creative thinker in daily life. And learning how to be a better thinker pays off in incalculable ways for anyone—including students, businesspeople, professionals, athletes, artists, leaders, and lifelong learners.

A book about changing your mind and creating an even better version of yourself through mental play, <i>Making Up Your Own Mind</i> will delight and reward anyone who wants to learn how to find better solutions to life’s innumerable puzzles.

And the puzzles extend to the thought-provoking format of the book itself because one of the later short chapters is printed upside down while another is printed in mirror image, further challenging the reader to see the world through different perspectives and make new meaning.
9780691188980 Scouting and Scoring Phillips, Christopher   Baseball, Social research & statistics, Probability & statistics, History of science, Social & cultural history 2019 320 <b>An in-depth look at the intersection of judgment and statistics in baseball</b>

Scouting and scoring are considered fundamentally different ways of ascertaining value in baseball. Scouting seems to rely on experience and intuition, scoring on performance metrics and statistics. In <i>Scouting and Scoring</i>, Christopher Phillips rejects these simplistic divisions. He shows how both scouts and scorers rely on numbers, bureaucracy, trust, and human labor in order to make sound judgments about the value of baseball players.

Tracing baseball’s story from the nineteenth century to today, Phillips explains that the sport was one of the earliest and most consequential fields for the introduction of numerical analysis. New technologies and methods of data collection were supposed to enable teams to quantify the drafting and managing of players—replacing scouting with scoring. But that’s not how things turned out. Over the decades, scouting and scoring started looking increasingly similar. Scouts expressed their judgments in highly formulaic ways, using numerical grades and scientific instruments to evaluate players. Scorers drew on moral judgments, depended on human labor to maintain and correct data, and designed bureaucratic systems to make statistics appear reliable. From the invention of official scorers and Statcast to the creation of the Major League Scouting Bureau, the history of baseball reveals the inextricable connections between human expertise and data science.

A unique consideration of the role of quantitative measurement and human judgment, <i>Scouting and Scoring</i> provides an entirely fresh understanding of baseball by showing what the sport reveals about reliable knowledge in the modern world.
9780691188997 The Plaid Model Schwartz, Richard Evan Annals of Mathematics Studies Geometry, Number theory, Combinatorics & graph theory 2019 280 Outer billiards provides a toy model for planetary motion and exhibits intricate and mysterious behavior even for seemingly simple examples. It is a dynamical system in which a particle in the plane moves around the outside of a convex shape according to a scheme that is reminiscent of ordinary billiards. <i>The Plaid Model</i>, which is a self-contained sequel to Richard Schwartz’s <i>Outer Billiards on Kites</i>, provides a combinatorial model for orbits of outer billiards on kites.

Schwartz relates these orbits to such topics as polytope exchange transformations, renormalization, continued fractions, corner percolation, and the Truchet tile system. The combinatorial model, called “the plaid model,” has a self-similar structure that blends geometry and elementary number theory. The results were discovered through computer experimentation and it seems that the conclusions would be extremely difficult to reach through traditional mathematics.

The book includes an extensive computer program that allows readers to explore the materials interactively and each theorem is accompanied by a computer demonstration.
9780691189161 Calculus Reordered Bressoud, David M.   Calculus, History of mathematics, History of science 2019 242 <b>How our understanding of calculus has evolved over more than three centuries, how this has shaped the way it is taught in the classroom, and why calculus pedagogy needs to change</b>

<i>Calculus Reordered</i> takes readers on a remarkable journey through hundreds of years to tell the story of how calculus evolved into the subject we know today. David Bressoud explains why calculus is credited to seventeenth-century figures Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz, and how its current structure is based on developments that arose in the nineteenth century. Bressoud argues that a pedagogy informed by the historical development of calculus represents a sounder way for students to learn this fascinating area of mathematics.

Delving into calculus’s birth in the Hellenistic Eastern Mediterranean—particularly in Syracuse, Sicily and Alexandria, Egypt—as well as India and the Islamic Middle East, Bressoud considers how calculus developed in response to essential questions emerging from engineering and astronomy. He looks at how Newton and Leibniz built their work on a flurry of activity that occurred throughout Europe, and how Italian philosophers such as Galileo Galilei played a particularly important role. In describing calculus’s evolution, Bressoud reveals problems with the standard ordering of its curriculum: limits, differentiation, integration, and series. He contends that the historical order—integration as accumulation, then differentiation as ratios of change, series as sequences of partial sums, and finally limits as they arise from the algebra of inequalities—makes more sense in the classroom environment.

Exploring the motivations behind calculus’s discovery, <i>Calculus Reordered</i> highlights how this essential tool of mathematics came to be.
9780691189284 Nano Comes to Life Contera, Sonia Nanotechnology, Impact of science & technology on society, Human biology, Physics, Materials science, Medicine: general issues 2019 240 <b>The nanotechnology revolution that will transform human health and longevity</b>

<i>Nano Comes to Life</i> opens a window onto the nanoscale—the infinitesimal realm of proteins and DNA where physics and cellular and molecular biology meet—and introduces readers to the rapidly evolving nanotechnologies that are allowing us to manipulate the very building blocks of life. Sonia Contera gives an insider's perspective on this new frontier, revealing how nanotechnology enables a new kind of multidisciplinary science that is poised to give us control over our own biology, our health, and our lives.

Drawing on her perspective as one of today's leading researchers in the field, Contera describes the exciting ways in which nanotechnology makes it possible to understand, interact with, and manipulate biology—such as by designing and building artificial structures and even machines at the nanoscale using DNA, proteins, and other biological molecules as materials. In turn, nanotechnology is revolutionizing medicine in ways that will have profound effects on our health and longevity, from nanoscale machines that can target individual cancer cells and deliver drugs more effectively, to nanoantibiotics that can fight resistant bacteria, to the engineering of tissues and organs for research, drug discovery, and transplantation.

The future will bring about the continued fusion of nanotechnology with biology, physics, medicine, and cutting-edge fields like robotics and artificial intelligence, ushering us into a new "transmaterial era." As we contemplate the power, advantages, and risks of accessing and manipulating our own biology, Contera offers insight and hope that we may all share in the benefits of this revolutionary research.
9780691189390 Chaos and Dynamical Systems Feldman, David Primers in Complex Systems Mathematics, Complex analysis,  complex variables, Chaos theory 2019 264 <i>Chaos and Dynamical Systems</i> presents an accessible, clear introduction to dynamical systems and chaos theory, important and exciting areas that have shaped many scientific fields. While the rules governing dynamical systems are well-specified and simple, the behavior of many dynamical systems is remarkably complex. Of particular note, simple deterministic dynamical systems produce output that appears random and for which long-term prediction is impossible. Using little math beyond basic algebra, David Feldman gives readers a grounded, concrete, and concise overview.

In initial chapters, Feldman introduces iterated functions and differential equations. He then surveys the key concepts and results to emerge from dynamical systems: chaos and the butterfly effect, deterministic randomness, bifurcations, universality, phase space, and strange attractors. Throughout, Feldman examines possible scientific implications of these phenomena for the study of complex systems, highlighting the relationships between simplicity and complexity, order and disorder.

Filling the gap between popular accounts of dynamical systems and chaos and textbooks aimed at physicists and mathematicians, <i>Chaos and Dynamical Systems</i> will be highly useful not only to students at the undergraduate and advanced levels, but also to researchers in the natural, social, and biological sciences.
9780691189581 Formal Verification of Control System Software Garoche, Pierre-Loïc Princeton Series in Applied Mathematics Applied mathematics, Differential calculus & equations, Linear programming, Numerical analysis, Optimization, Computer science 2019 232 <b>An essential introduction to the analysis and verification of control system software</b>

The verification of control system software is critical to a host of technologies and industries, from aeronautics and medical technology to the cars we drive. The failure of controller software can cost people their lives. In this authoritative and accessible book, Pierre-Loïc Garoche provides control engineers and computer scientists with an indispensable introduction to the formal techniques for analyzing and verifying this important class of software.

Too often, control engineers are unaware of the issues surrounding the verification of software, while computer scientists tend to be unfamiliar with the specificities of controller software. Garoche provides a unified approach that is geared to graduate students in both fields, covering formal verification methods as well as the design and verification of controllers. He presents a wealth of new verification techniques for performing exhaustive analysis of controller software. These include new means to compute nonlinear invariants, the use of convex optimization tools, and methods for dealing with numerical imprecisions such as floating point computations occurring in the analyzed software.

As the autonomy of critical systems continues to increase—as evidenced by autonomous cars, drones, and satellites and landers—the numerical functions in these systems are growing ever more advanced. The techniques presented here are essential to support the formal analysis of the controller software being used in these new and emerging technologies.
9780691189635 The Norm Residue Theorem in Motivic Cohomology Haesemeyer, Christian,Weibel, Charles A. Annals of Mathematics Studies Algebraic geometry, Topology 2019 320 This book presents the complete proof of the Bloch-Kato conjecture and several related conjectures of Beilinson and Lichtenbaum in algebraic geometry. Brought together here for the first time, these conjectures describe the structure of étale cohomology and its relation to motivic cohomology and Chow groups.

Although the proof relies on the work of several people, it is credited primarily to Vladimir Voevodsky. The authors draw on a multitude of published and unpublished sources to explain the large-scale structure of Voevodsky’s proof and introduce the key figures behind its development. They proceed to describe the highly innovative geometric constructions of Markus Rost, including the construction of norm varieties, which play a crucial role in the proof. The book then addresses symmetric powers of motives and motivic cohomology operations.

Comprehensive and self-contained, <i>The Norm Residue Theorem in Motivic Cohomology</i> unites various components of the proof that until now were scattered across many sources of varying accessibility, often with differing hypotheses, definitions, and language.
9780691189642 Alien Oceans Hand, Kevin Popular science, Popular astronomy & space, Space science, Earth sciences 2019 304 <b>Inside the epic quest to find life on the water-rich moons at the outer reaches of the solar system</b>

Where is the best place to find life beyond Earth? We often look to Mars as the most promising site in our solar system, but recent scientific missions have revealed that some of the most habitable real estate may actually lie farther away. Beneath the frozen crusts of several of the small, ice-covered moons of Jupiter and Saturn lurk vast oceans that may have existed for as long as Earth, and together may contain more than fifty times its total volume of liquid water. Could there be organisms living in their depths? <i>Alien Oceans</i> reveals the science behind the thrilling quest to find out.

Kevin Peter Hand is one of today's leading NASA scientists, and his pioneering research has taken him on expeditions around the world. In this captivating account of scientific discovery, he brings together insights from planetary science, biology, and the adventures of scientists like himself to explain how we know that oceans exist within moons of the outer solar system, like Europa, Titan, and Enceladus. He shows how the exploration of Earth's oceans is informing our understanding of the potential habitability of these icy moons, and draws lessons from what we have learned about the origins of life on our own planet to consider how life could arise on these distant worlds.

<i>Alien Oceans</i> describes what lies ahead in our search for life in our solar system and beyond, setting the stage for the transformative discoveries that may await us.
9780691190051 No Shadow of a Doubt Kennefick, Daniel   History of science, Relativity physics, Biography: science,  technology & medicine 2019 416 <b>On their 100th anniversary, the story of the extraordinary scientific expeditions that ushered in the era of relativity</b>

In 1919, British scientists led extraordinary expeditions to Brazil and Africa to test Albert Einstein’s revolutionary new theory of general relativity in what became the century’s most celebrated scientific experiment. The result ushered in a new era and made Einstein a global celebrity by confirming his dramatic prediction that the path of light rays would be bent by gravity. Today, Einstein’s theory is scientific fact. Yet the effort to “weigh light” by measuring the gravitational deflection of starlight during the May 29, 1919, solar eclipse has become clouded by myth and skepticism. Could Arthur Eddington and Frank Dyson have gotten the results they claimed? Did the pacifist Eddington falsify evidence to foster peace after a horrific war by validating the theory of a German antiwar campaigner? In <i>No Shadow of a Doubt</i>, Daniel Kennefick provides definitive answers by offering the most comprehensive and authoritative account of how expedition scientists overcame war, bad weather, and equipment problems to make the experiment a triumphant success.

The reader follows Eddington on his voyage to Africa through his letters home, and delves with Dyson into how the complex experiment was accomplished, through his notes. Other characters include Howard Grubb, the brilliant Irishman who made the instruments; William Campbell, the American astronomer who confirmed the result; and Erwin Findlay-Freundlich, the German whose attempts to perform the test in Crimea were foiled by clouds and his arrest.

By chronicling the expeditions and their enormous impact in greater detail than ever before, <i>No Shadow of a Doubt</i> reveals a story that is even richer and more exciting than previously known.
9780691190600 digitalSTS Vertesi, Janet,Ribes, David Social research & statistics, Society & social sciences, Impact of science & technology on society, Technology: general issues, Science: general issues, Industrial applications of scientific research & technological innovation 2019 568 <b>New perspectives on digital scholarship that speak to today's computational realities </b>

Scholars across the humanities, social sciences, and information sciences are grappling with how best to study virtual environments, use computational tools in their research, and engage audiences with their results. Classic work in science and technology studies (STS) has played a central role in how these fields analyze digital technologies, but many of its key examples do not speak to today’s computational realities. This groundbreaking collection brings together a world-class group of contributors to refresh the canon for contemporary digital scholarship.

In twenty-five pioneering and incisive essays, this unique digital field guide offers innovative new approaches to digital scholarship, the design of digital tools and objects, and the deployment of critically grounded technologies for analysis and discovery. Contributors cover a broad range of topics, including software development, hackathons, digitized objects, diversity in the tech sector, and distributed scientific collaborations. They discuss methodological considerations of social networks and data analysis, design projects that can translate STS concepts into durable scientific work, and much more.

Featuring a concise introduction by Janet Vertesi and David Ribes and accompanied by an interactive microsite, this book provides new perspectives on digital scholarship that will shape the agenda for tomorrow’s generation of STS researchers and practitioners.
9780691190136 Millions, Billions, Zillions Kernighan, Brian W.   Mathematical foundations, Media studies, Mensuration & systems of measurement 2019 176 <b>An essential guide to recognizing bogus numbers and misleading data</b>

Numbers are often intimidating, confusing, and even deliberately deceptive—especially when they are really big. The media loves to report on millions, billions, and trillions, but frequently makes basic mistakes or presents such numbers in misleading ways. And misunderstanding numbers can have serious consequences, since they can deceive us in many of our most important decisions, including how to vote, what to buy, and whether to make a financial investment. In this short, accessible, enlightening, and entertaining book, leading computer scientist Brian Kernighan teaches anyone—even diehard math-phobes—how to demystify the numbers that assault us every day.

With examples drawn from a rich variety of sources, including journalism, advertising, and politics, Kernighan demonstrates how numbers can mislead and misrepresent. In chapters covering big numbers, units, dimensions, and more, he lays bare everything from deceptive graphs to speciously precise numbers. And he shows how anyone—using a few basic ideas and lots of shortcuts—can easily learn to recognize common mistakes, determine whether numbers are credible, and make their own sensible estimates when needed.

Giving you the simple tools you need to avoid being fooled by dubious numbers, <i>Millions, Billions, Zillions</i> is an essential survival guide for a world drowning in big—and often bad—data.
9780691191966 More Things in the Heavens Werner, Michael,Eisenhardt, Peter Astronomy,  space & time, Cosmology & the universe, Space science, Scientific equipment,  experiments & techniques, Philosophy of science 2019 304 <b>A sweeping tour of the infrared universe as seen through the eyes of NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope</b>

Astronomers have been studying the heavens for thousands of years, but until recently much of the cosmos has been invisible to the human eye. Launched in 2003, the Spitzer Space Telescope has brought the infrared universe into focus as never before. Michael Werner and Peter Eisenhardt are among the scientists who worked for decades to bring this historic mission to life. Here is their inside story of how <i>Spitzer</i> continues to carry out cutting-edge infrared astronomy to help answer fundamental questions that have intrigued humankind since time immemorial: Where did we come from? How did the universe evolve? Are we alone?

In this panoramic book, Werner and Eisenhardt take readers on a breathtaking guided tour of the cosmos in the infrared, beginning in our solar system and venturing ever outward toward the distant origins of the expanding universe. They explain how astronomers use the infrared to observe celestial bodies that are too cold or too far away for their light to be seen by the eye, to conduct deep surveys of galaxies as they appeared at the dawn of time, and to peer through dense cosmic clouds that obscure major events in the life cycles of planets, stars, and galaxies.

Featuring many of <i>Spitzer</i>’s spectacular images, <i>More Things in the Heavens</i> provides a thrilling look at how infrared astronomy is aiding the search for exoplanets and extraterrestrial life, and transforming our understanding of the history and evolution of our universe.
9780691191997 Euler's Gem Richeson, David S. Princeton Science Library History of mathematics, Philosophy of mathematics, Topology, Geometry 2019 336 <b>How a simple equation reshaped mathematics</b>

Leonhard Euler’s polyhedron formula describes the structure of many objects—from soccer balls and gemstones to Buckminster Fuller’s buildings and giant all-carbon molecules. Yet Euler’s theorem is so simple it can be explained to a child. From ancient Greek geometry to today’s cutting-edge research, <i>Euler’s Gem</i> celebrates the discovery of Euler’s beloved polyhedron formula and its far-reaching impact on topology, the study of shapes. Using wonderful examples and numerous illustrations, David Richeson presents this mathematical idea’s many elegant and unexpected applications, such as showing why there is always some windless spot on earth, how to measure the acreage of a tree farm by counting trees, and how many crayons are needed to color any map. Filled with a who’s who of brilliant mathematicians who questioned, refined, and contributed to a remarkable theorem’s development, <i>Euler’s Gem</i> will fascinate every mathematics enthusiast. This paperback edition contains a new preface by the author.
9780691192598 A Dynamical Systems Theory of Thermodynamics Haddad, Wassim M. Princeton Series in Applied Mathematics Thermodynamics & heat, Applied mathematics, Differential calculus & equations, Linear programming, Optimization, Physics 2019 744 <b>A brand-new conceptual look at dynamical thermodynamics </b>

This book merges the two universalisms of thermodynamics and dynamical systems theory in a single compendium, with the latter providing an ideal language for the former, to develop a new and unique framework for dynamical thermodynamics. In particular, the book uses system-theoretic ideas to bring coherence, clarity, and precision to an important and poorly understood classical area of science. The dynamical systems formalism captures all of the key aspects of thermodynamics, including its fundamental laws, while providing a mathematically rigorous formulation for thermodynamical systems out of equilibrium by unifying the theory of mechanics with that of classical thermodynamics.

This book includes topics on nonequilibrium irreversible thermodynamics, Boltzmann thermodynamics, mass-action kinetics and chemical reactions, finite-time thermodynamics, thermodynamic critical phenomena with continuous and discontinuous phase transitions, information theory, continuum and stochastic thermodynamics, and relativistic thermodynamics.

<i>A Dynamical Systems Theory of Thermodynamics</i> develops a postmodern theory of thermodynamics as part of mathematical dynamical systems theory. The book establishes a clear nexus between thermodynamic irreversibility, the second law of thermodynamics, and the arrow of time to further unify discreteness and continuity, indeterminism and determinism, and quantum mechanics and general relativity in the pursuit of understanding the most fundamental property of the universe—the entropic arrow of time.
9780691192543 Mathematics and Computation Wigderson, Avi   Mathematics, Computer science 2019 440 <b>An introduction to computational complexity theory, its connections and interactions with mathematics, and its central role in the natural and social sciences, technology, and philosophy</b>

<i>Mathematics and Computation</i> provides a broad, conceptual overview of computational complexity theory—the mathematical study of efficient computation. With important practical applications to computer science and industry, computational complexity theory has evolved into a highly interdisciplinary field, with strong links to most mathematical areas and to a growing number of scientific endeavors.

Avi Wigderson takes a sweeping survey of complexity theory, emphasizing the field’s insights and challenges. He explains the ideas and motivations leading to key models, notions, and results. In particular, he looks at algorithms and complexity, computations and proofs, randomness and interaction, quantum and arithmetic computation, and cryptography and learning, all as parts of a cohesive whole with numerous cross-influences. Wigderson illustrates the immense breadth of the field, its beauty and richness, and its diverse and growing interactions with other areas of mathematics. He ends with a comprehensive look at the theory of computation, its methodology and aspirations, and the unique and fundamental ways in which it has shaped and will further shape science, technology, and society. For further reading, an extensive bibliography is provided for all topics covered.

<i>Mathematics and Computation</i> is useful for undergraduate and graduate students in mathematics, computer science, and related fields, as well as researchers and teachers in these fields. Many parts require little background, and serve as an invitation to newcomers seeking an introduction to the theory of computation.
<ul><li>Comprehensive coverage of computational complexity theory, and beyond
</li><li>High-level, intuitive exposition, which brings conceptual clarity to this central and dynamic scientific discipline
</li><li>Historical accounts of the evolution and motivations of central concepts and models
</li><li>A broad view of the theory of computation's influence on science, technology, and society
</li><li>Extensive bibliography
9780691193717 The Master Equation and the Convergence Problem in Mean Field Games Cardaliaguet, Pierre,Delarue, François,Lasry, Jean-Michel,Lions, Pierre-Louis Annals of Mathematics Studies Game theory, Differential calculus & equations 2019 224 This book describes the latest advances in the theory of mean field games, which are optimal control problems with a continuum of players, each of them interacting with the whole statistical distribution of a population. While it originated in economics, this theory now has applications in areas as diverse as mathematical finance, crowd phenomena, epidemiology, and cybersecurity.

Because mean field games concern the interactions of infinitely many players in an optimal control framework, one expects them to appear as the limit for Nash equilibria of differential games with finitely many players as the number of players tends to infinity. This book rigorously establishes this convergence, which has been an open problem until now. The limit of the system associated with differential games with finitely many players is described by the so-called master equation, a nonlocal transport equation in the space of measures. After defining a suitable notion of differentiability in the space of measures, the authors provide a complete self-contained analysis of the master equation. Their analysis includes the case of common noise problems in which all the players are affected by a common Brownian motion. They then go on to explain how to use the master equation to prove the mean field limit.

This groundbreaking book presents two important new results in mean field games that contribute to a unified theoretical framework for this exciting and fast-developing area of mathematics.
9780691193588 Relativity Einstein, Albert   Relativity physics, History of science, History of ideas 2019 328 <b>A handsome annotated edition of Einstein’s celebrated book on relativity</b>

After completing the final version of his general theory of relativity in November 1915, Albert Einstein wrote <i>Relativity</i>. Intended for a popular audience, the book remains one of the most lucid explanations of the special and general theories ever written. This edition of Einstein’s celebrated book features an authoritative English translation of the text along with commentaries by Hanoch Gutfreund and Jürgen Renn that examine the evolution of Einstein’s thinking and cast his ideas in a modern context. Providing invaluable insight into one of the greatest scientific minds of all time, the book also includes a unique survey of the introductions from past editions, covers from selected early editions, a letter from Walther Rathenau to Einstein discussing the book, and a revealing sample from Einstein’s original handwritten manuscript.
9780691194233 Tales of Impossibility Richeson, David S. Philosophy of mathematics, History of mathematics, Popular mathematics 2019 456 <b>A comprehensive look at four of the most famous problems in mathematics</b>

<i>Tales of Impossibility</i> recounts<i> </i>the intriguing story of the renowned problems of antiquity, four of the most famous and studied questions in the history of mathematics. First posed by the ancient Greeks, these compass and straightedge problems—squaring the circle, trisecting an angle, doubling the cube, and inscribing regular polygons in a circle—have served as ever-present muses for mathematicians for more than two millennia. David Richeson follows the trail of these problems to show that ultimately their proofs—which demonstrated the impossibility of solving them using only a compass and straightedge—depended on and resulted in the growth of mathematics.

Richeson investigates how celebrated luminaries, including Euclid, Archimedes, Viète, Descartes, Newton, and Gauss, labored to understand these problems and how many major mathematical discoveries were related to their explorations. Although the problems were based in geometry, their resolutions were not, and had to wait until the nineteenth century, when mathematicians had developed the theory of real and complex numbers, analytic geometry, algebra, and calculus. Pierre Wantzel, a little-known mathematician, and Ferdinand von Lindemann, through his work on pi, finally determined the problems were impossible to solve. Along the way, Richeson provides entertaining anecdotes connected to the problems, such as how the Indiana state legislature passed a bill setting an incorrect value for pi and how Leonardo da Vinci made elegant contributions in his own study of these problems.

Taking readers from the classical period to the present, <i>Tales of Impossibility</i> chronicles how four unsolvable problems have captivated mathematical thinking for centuries.
9780691194417 The Mathematics of Various Entertaining Subjects     Mathematics, Hobbies,  quizzes & games, History of mathematics, Philosophy of mathematics 2019 352 The history of mathematics is replete with examples of major breakthroughs resulting from solutions to recreational problems. The modern theory of probability arose out of problems of concern to gamblers, for example, and modern combinatorics grew out of various games and puzzles. Despite this track record and a wealth of popular-level books, there remain few conduits for research in recreational mathematics. <i>The Mathematics of Various Entertaining Subjects</i> now returns with an all-new third volume, presenting new research in diverse areas of recreational mathematics.

This volume focuses on four areas: puzzles and brainteasers, games, algebra and number theory, and geometry and topology. Readers will create Spiral Galaxies, Japanese symmetric grid puzzles consisting of squares and circles whose solutions are letters and numbers; delve into a paradox in the game of Bingo; examine the card tricks of mathematician-philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce; learn about the mathematics behind Legos; and much more.

Elucidating the many connections between mathematics and games, <i>The Mathematics of Various Entertaining Subjects</i> is sure to challenge and inspire mathematicians and math enthusiasts.
9780691197784 Curves for the Mathematically Curious Havil, Julian Geometry, History of mathematics, Philosophy of mathematics, Topology, Popular mathematics, Art forms 2019 280 <b>Ten amazing curves personally selected by one of today's most important math writers</b>

<i>Curves for the Mathematically Curious</i> is a thoughtfully curated collection of ten mathematical curves, selected by Julian Havil for their significance, mathematical interest, and beauty. Each chapter gives an account of the history and definition of one curve, providing a glimpse into the elegant and often surprising mathematics involved in its creation and evolution. In telling the ten stories, Havil introduces many mathematicians and other innovators, some whose fame has withstood the passing of years and others who have slipped into comparative obscurity. You will meet Pierre Bézier, who is known for his ubiquitous and eponymous curves, and Adolphe Quetelet, who trumpeted the ubiquity of the normal curve but whose name now hides behind the modern body mass index. These and other ingenious thinkers engaged with the challenges, incongruities, and insights to be found in these remarkable curves—and now you can share in this adventure.

<i>Curves for the Mathematically Curious</i> is a rigorous and enriching mathematical experience for anyone interested in curves, and the book is designed so that readers who choose can follow the details with pencil and paper. Every curve has a story worth telling.
9780691197944 The Best Writing on Mathematics 2019   The Best Writing on Mathematics Mathematics, Reference works, Hobbies,  quizzes & games 2019 304 <b>The year's finest mathematical writing from around the world</b>

This annual anthology brings together the year's finest mathematics writing from around the world. Featuring promising new voices alongside some of the foremost names in the field, <i>The Best Writing on Mathematics 2019</i> makes available to a wide audience many articles not easily found anywhere else—and you don't need to be a mathematician to enjoy them. These essays delve into the history, philosophy, teaching, and everyday aspects of math, offering surprising insights into its nature, meaning, and practice—and taking readers behind the scenes of today's hottest mathematical debates.

In this volume, Moon Duchin explains how geometric-statistical methods can be used to combat gerrymandering, Jeremy Avigad illustrates the growing use of computation in making and verifying mathematical hypotheses, and Kokichi Sugihara describes how to construct geometrical objects with unusual visual properties. In other essays, Neil Sloane presents some recent additions to the vast database of integer sequences he has catalogued, and Alessandro Di Bucchianico and his colleagues highlight how mathematical methods have been successfully applied to big-data problems. And there's much, much more.

In addition to presenting the year's most memorable math writing, this must-have anthology includes an introduction by the editor and a bibliography of other notable writings on mathematics.

This is a must-read for anyone interested in where math has taken us—and where it is headed.
9780691197036 Opt Art Bosch, Robert Optimization, Popular mathematics, Art forms 2019 200 <b>A fun and stunningly illustrated introduction to the art of linear optimization</b>

Linear optimization is a powerful modeling method for discovering the best solution to a problem among a set of available alternatives. It is one of today’s most important branches of mathematics and computer science—and also a surprisingly rich medium for creating breathtaking works of art. <i>Opt Art</i> takes readers on an entertaining tour of linear optimization and its applications, showing along the way how it can be used to design visual art.

Robert Bosch provides a lively and accessible introduction to the geometric, algebraic, and algorithmic foundations of optimization. He presents classical applications, such as the legendary Traveling Salesman Problem, and shows how to adapt them to make optimization art—opt art. Each chapter in this marvelously illustrated book begins with a problem or puzzle and demonstrates how the solution can be derived using a host of artistic methods and media, including 3D printing, laser cutting, and computer-controlled machining. Bosch focuses on mathematical modeling throughout—converting a problem into a workable mathematical form, solving it using optimization techniques, and examining the results, which can take the form of mosaics, line drawings, and even sculpture. All you need is some high-school algebra, geometry, and calculus to follow along.

Featuring more than a hundred illustrations and photos of Bosch’s own art, <i>Opt Art</i> demonstrates how mathematics and computing can be used to create beauty and express emotion through amazing works of art.
9780691197005 At the Edge of Time Hooper, Dan Science Essentials Cosmology & the universe, Astrophysics, Popular science 2019 248 <b>A new look at the first few seconds after the Big Bang—and how research into these moments continues to revolutionize our understanding of our universe</b>

Scientists in the past few decades have made crucial discoveries about how our cosmos evolved over the past 13.8 billion years. But there remains a critical gap in our knowledge: we still know very little about what happened in the first seconds after the Big Bang. <i>At the Edge of Time</i> focuses on what we have recently learned and are still striving to understand about this most essential and mysterious period of time at the beginning of cosmic history.

Delving into the remarkable science of cosmology, Dan Hooper describes many of the extraordinary and perplexing questions that scientists are asking about the origin and nature of our world. Hooper examines how we are using the Large Hadron Collider and other experiments to re-create the conditions of the Big Bang and test promising theories for how and why our universe came to contain so much matter and so little antimatter. We may be poised to finally discover how dark matter was formed during our universe’s first moments, and, with new telescopes, we are also lifting the veil on the era of cosmic inflation, which led to the creation of our world as we know it.

Wrestling with the mysteries surrounding the initial moments that followed the Big Bang, <i>At the Edge of Time</i> presents an accessible investigation of our universe and its origin.
9780691198965 Ancient Wine McGovern, Patrick E. Princeton Science Library Archaeology, Anthropology, Wines, Alcoholic beverages 2019 464 <b>A richly illustrated account of the story of ancient viniculture</b>

The history of civilization is, in many ways, the history of wine. This book is the first comprehensive account of the earliest stages of the history and prehistory of viniculture, which extends back into the Neolithic period and beyond. Elegantly written and richly illustrated, <i>Ancient Wine</i> opens up whole new chapters in the fascinating story of wine by drawing on recent archaeological discoveries, molecular and DNA sleuthing, and the writings and art of ancient peoples. In a new afterword, the author discusses exciting recent developments in the understanding of ancient wine, including a new theory of how viniculture came to central and northern Europe.
9780691197548 Arithmetic and Geometry   Annals of Mathematics Studies Mathematics, Geometry 2019 186 <i>Arithmetic and Geometry</i> presents highlights of recent work in arithmetic algebraic geometry by some of the world's leading mathematicians. Together, these 2016 lectures—which were delivered in celebration of the tenth anniversary of the annual summer workshops in Alpbach, Austria—provide an introduction to high-level research on three topics: Shimura varieties, hyperelliptic continued fractions and generalized Jacobians, and Faltings height and L-functions. The book consists of notes, written by young researchers, on three sets of lectures or minicourses given at Alpbach.

The first course, taught by Peter Scholze, contains his recent results dealing with the local Langlands conjecture. The fundamental question is whether for a given datum there exists a so-called local Shimura variety. In some cases, they exist in the category of rigid analytic spaces; in others, one has to use Scholze's perfectoid spaces.

The second course, taught by Umberto Zannier, addresses the famous Pell equation—not in the classical setting but rather with the so-called polynomial Pell equation, where the integers are replaced by polynomials in one variable with complex coefficients, which leads to the study of hyperelliptic continued fractions and generalized Jacobians.

The third course, taught by Shou-Wu Zhang, originates in the Chowla–Selberg formula, which was taken up by Gross and Zagier to relate values of the L-function for elliptic curves with the height of Heegner points on the curves. Zhang, X. Yuan, and Wei Zhang prove the Gross–Zagier formula on Shimura curves and verify the Colmez conjecture on average.
9780691197777 Artificial You Schneider, Susan Neurosciences, Cognitive science, Popular philosophy, Artificial intelligence, Computer science 2019 192 <b>Hailed by the <i>Washington Post</i> as “a sure-footed and witty guide to slippery ethical terrain,” a philosophical exploration of AI and the future of the mind that Astronomer Royal Martin Rees calls “profound and entertaining”</b>

Humans may not be Earth’s most intelligent beings for much longer: the world champions of chess, Go, and <i>Jeopardy!</i> are now all AIs. Given the rapid pace of progress in AI, many predict that it could advance to human-level intelligence within the next several decades. From there, it could quickly outpace human intelligence. What do these developments mean for the future of the mind?

In <i>Artificial You</i>, Susan Schneider says that it is inevitable that AI will take intelligence in new directions, but urges that it is up to us to carve out a sensible path forward. As AI technology turns inward, reshaping the brain, as well as outward, potentially creating machine minds, it is crucial to beware. Homo sapiens, as mind designers, will be playing with "tools" they do not understand how to use: the self, the mind, and consciousness. Schneider argues that an insufficient grasp of the nature of these entities could undermine the use of AI and brain enhancement technology, bringing about the demise or suffering of conscious beings. To flourish, we must grasp the philosophical issues lying beneath the algorithms.

At the heart of her exploration is a sober-minded discussion of what AI can truly achieve: Can robots really be conscious? Can we merge with AI, as tech leaders like Elon Musk and Ray Kurzweil suggest? Is the mind just a program? Examining these thorny issues, Schneider proposes ways we can test for machine consciousness, questions whether consciousness is an unavoidable byproduct of sophisticated intelligence, and considers the overall dangers of creating machine minds.
9780691185675 The Evolution of Knowledge Renn, Jürgen   History of science, Philosophy of science, Cognitive science, Sociology, Philosophy: epistemology & theory of knowledge 2020 584 <b>A fundamentally new approach to the history of science and technology</b>

This book presents a new way of thinking about the history of science and technology, one that offers a grand narrative of human history in which knowledge serves as a critical factor of cultural evolution. Jürgen Renn examines the role of knowledge in global transformations going back to the dawn of civilization while providing vital perspectives on the complex challenges confronting us today in the Anthropocene—this new geological epoch shaped by humankind.

Renn reframes the history of science and technology within a much broader history of knowledge, analyzing key episodes such as the evolution of writing, the emergence of science in the ancient world, the Scientific Revolution of early modernity, the globalization of knowledge, industrialization, and the profound transformations wrought by modern science. He investigates the evolution of knowledge using an array of disciplines and methods, from cognitive science and experimental psychology to earth science and evolutionary biology. The result is an entirely new framework for understanding structural changes in systems of knowledge—and a bold new approach to the history and philosophy of science.

Written by one of today's preeminent historians of science, <i>The Evolution of Knowledge</i> features discussions of historiographical themes, a glossary of key terms, and practical insights on global issues ranging from climate change to digital capitalism. This incisive book also serves as an invaluable introduction to the history of knowledge.
9780691197487 Introductory Lectures on Equivariant Cohomology Tu, Loring W. Annals of Mathematics Studies Algebraic geometry, Geometry, Topology, Algebra 2020 200 This book gives a clear introductory account of equivariant cohomology, a central topic in algebraic topology. Equivariant cohomology is concerned with the algebraic topology of spaces with a group action, or in other words, with symmetries of spaces. First defined in the 1950s, it has been introduced into K-theory and algebraic geometry, but it is in algebraic topology that the concepts are the most transparent and the proofs are the simplest. One of the most useful applications of equivariant cohomology is the equivariant localization theorem of Atiyah-Bott and Berline-Vergne, which converts the integral of an equivariant differential form into a finite sum over the fixed point set of the group action, providing a powerful tool for computing integrals over a manifold. Because integrals and symmetries are ubiquitous, equivariant cohomology has found applications in diverse areas of mathematics and physics.

Assuming readers have taken one semester of manifold theory and a year of algebraic topology, Loring Tu begins with the topological construction of equivariant cohomology, then develops the theory for smooth manifolds with the aid of differential forms. To keep the exposition simple, the equivariant localization theorem is proven only for a circle action. An appendix gives a proof of the equivariant de Rham theorem, demonstrating that equivariant cohomology can be computed using equivariant differential forms. Examples and calculations illustrate new concepts. Exercises include hints or solutions, making this book suitable for self-study.
9780691200323 The Secret Formula Toscano, Fabio   History of mathematics, Philosophy of mathematics, European history, Italy, Popular mathematics 2020 176 <b>The legendary Renaissance math duel that ushered in the modern age of algebra</b>

<i>The Secret Formula</i> tells the story of two Renaissance mathematicians whose jealousies, intrigues, and contentious debates led to the discovery of a formula for the solution of the cubic equation. Niccolò Tartaglia was a talented and ambitious teacher who possessed a secret formula—the key to unlocking a seemingly unsolvable, two-thousand-year-old mathematical problem. He wrote it down in the form of a poem to prevent other mathematicians from stealing it. Gerolamo Cardano was a physician, gifted scholar, and notorious gambler who would not hesitate to use flattery and even trickery to learn Tartaglia's secret.

Set against the backdrop of sixteenth-century Italy, <i>The Secret Formula</i> provides new and compelling insights into the peculiarities of Renaissance mathematics while bringing a turbulent and culturally vibrant age to life. It was an era when mathematicians challenged each other in intellectual duels held outdoors before enthusiastic crowds. Success not only enhanced the winner's reputation, but could result in prize money and professional acclaim. After hearing of Tartaglia's spectacular victory in one such contest in Venice, Cardano invited him to Milan, determined to obtain his secret by whatever means necessary. Cardano's intrigues paid off. In 1545, he was the first to publish a general solution of the cubic equation. Tartaglia, eager to take his revenge by establishing his superiority as the most brilliant mathematician of the age, challenged Cardano to the ultimate mathematical duel.

A lively and compelling account of genius, betrayal, and all-too-human failings, <i>The Secret Formula</i> reveals the epic rivalry behind one of the fundamental ideas of modern algebra.
9780691197050 Statistics, Data Mining, and Machine Learning in Astronomy Ivezić, Željko,Connolly, Andrew J.,VanderPlas, Jacob T.,Gray, Alexander Princeton Series in Modern Observational Astronomy Theoretical & mathematical astronomy, Astrophysics, Mathematics & science, Data mining, Artificial intelligence 2020 552 <i>Statistics, Data Mining, and Machine Learning in Astronomy</i> is the essential introduction to the statistical methods needed to analyze complex data sets from astronomical surveys such as the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System, the Dark Energy Survey, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. Now fully updated, it presents a wealth of practical analysis problems, evaluates the techniques for solving them, and explains how to use various approaches for different types and sizes of data sets. Python code and sample data sets are provided for all applications described in the book. The supporting data sets have been carefully selected from contemporary astronomical surveys and are easy to download and use. The accompanying Python code is publicly available, well documented, and follows uniform coding standards. Together, the data sets and code enable readers to reproduce all the figures and examples, engage with the different methods, and adapt them to their own fields of interest.

An accessible textbook for students and an indispensable reference for researchers, this updated edition features new sections on deep learning methods, hierarchical Bayes modeling, and approximate Bayesian computation. The chapters have been revised throughout and the astroML code has been brought completely up to date.<ul><li>Fully revised and expanded
</li><li>Describes the most useful statistical and data-mining methods for extracting knowledge from huge and complex astronomical data sets
</li><li>Features real-world data sets from astronomical surveys
</li><li>Uses a freely available Python codebase throughout
</li><li>Ideal for graduate students, advanced undergraduates, and working astronomers
9780691200316 Statistical Inference via Convex Optimization Juditsky, Anatoli,Nemirovski, Arkadi Princeton Series in Applied Mathematics Optimization, Probability & statistics, Applied mathematics 2020 656 This authoritative book draws on the latest research to explore the interplay of high-dimensional statistics with optimization. Through an accessible analysis of fundamental problems of hypothesis testing and signal recovery, Anatoli Juditsky and Arkadi Nemirovski show how convex optimization theory can be used to devise and analyze near-optimal statistical inferences.

<i>Statistical Inference via Convex Optimization</i> is an essential resource for optimization specialists who are new to statistics and its applications, and for data scientists who want to improve their optimization methods. Juditsky and Nemirovski provide the first systematic treatment of the statistical techniques that have arisen from advances in the theory of optimization. They focus on four well-known statistical problems—sparse recovery, hypothesis testing, and recovery from indirect observations of both signals and functions of signals—demonstrating how they can be solved more efficiently as convex optimization problems. The emphasis throughout is on achieving the best possible statistical performance. The construction of inference routines and the quantification of their statistical performance are given by efficient computation rather than by analytical derivation typical of more conventional statistical approaches. In addition to being computation-friendly, the methods described in this book enable practitioners to handle numerous situations too difficult for closed analytical form analysis, such as composite hypothesis testing and signal recovery in inverse problems.

<i>Statistical Inference via Convex Optimization</i> features exercises with solutions along with extensive appendixes, making it ideal for use as a graduate text.
9780691197937 Eisenstein Cohomology for GLN and the Special Values of Rankin–Selberg L-Functions Raghuram, Anantharam,Harder, Günter Annals of Mathematics Studies Number theory, Algebraic geometry 2020 240 This book studies the interplay between the geometry and topology of locally symmetric spaces, and the arithmetic aspects of the special values of L-functions.

The authors study the cohomology of locally symmetric spaces for GL(N) where the cohomology groups are with coefficients in a local system attached to a finite-dimensional algebraic representation of GL(N). The image of the global cohomology in the cohomology of the Borel–Serre boundary is called Eisenstein cohomology, since at a transcendental level the cohomology classes may be described in terms of Eisenstein series and induced representations. However, because the groups are sheaf-theoretically defined, one can control their rationality and even integrality properties. A celebrated theorem by Langlands describes the constant term of an Eisenstein series in terms of automorphic L-functions. A cohomological interpretation of this theorem in terms of maps in Eisenstein cohomology allows the authors to study the rationality properties of the special values of Rankin–Selberg L-functions for GL(n) x GL(m), where n + m = N. The authors carry through the entire program with an eye toward generalizations.

This book should be of interest to advanced graduate students and researchers interested in number theory, automorphic forms, representation theory, and the cohomology of arithmetic groups.
9780691198859 Dark Data Hand, David J.   Impact of science & technology on society, Databases, Data warehousing, Data mining 2020 344 <b>A practical guide to making good decisions in a world of missing data</b>

In the era of big data, it is easy to imagine that we have all the information we need to make good decisions. But in fact the data we have are never complete, and may be only the tip of the iceberg. Just as much of the universe is composed of dark matter, invisible to us but nonetheless present, the universe of information is full of dark data that we overlook at our peril. In <i>Dark Data</i>, data expert David Hand takes us on a fascinating and enlightening journey into the world of the data we <i>don't</i> see.

<i>Dark Data</i> explores the many ways in which we can be blind to missing data and how that can lead us to conclusions and actions that are mistaken, dangerous, or even disastrous. Examining a wealth of real-life examples, from the Challenger shuttle explosion to complex financial frauds, Hand gives us a practical taxonomy of the types of dark data that exist and the situations in which they can arise, so that we can learn to recognize and control for them. In doing so, he teaches us not only to be alert to the problems presented by the things we don’t know, but also shows how dark data can be used to our advantage, leading to greater understanding and better decisions.

Today, we all make decisions using data. <i>Dark Data</i> shows us all how to reduce the risk of making bad ones.
9780691199849 Einstein in Bohemia Gordin, Michael D. History of science, Biography: science,  technology & medicine, European history, Former Czechoslovakia, Physics, History of ideas 2020 360 <b>A finely drawn portrait of Einstein's sixteen months in Prague</b>

In the spring of 1911, Albert Einstein moved with his wife and two sons to Prague, the capital of Bohemia, where he accepted a post as a professor of theoretical physics. Though he intended to make Prague his home, he lived there for just sixteen months, an interlude that his biographies typically dismiss as a brief and inconsequential episode. <i>Einstein in Bohemia</i> is a spellbinding portrait of the city that touched Einstein's life in unexpected ways—and of the gifted young scientist who left his mark on the science, literature, and politics of Prague.

Michael Gordin's narrative is a masterfully crafted account of a person encountering a particular place at a specific moment in time. Despite being heir to almost a millennium of history, Einstein's Prague was a relatively marginal city within the sprawling Austro-Hungarian Empire. Yet Prague, its history, and its multifaceted culture changed the trajectories of Einstein's personal and scientific life. It was here that his marriage unraveled, where he first began thinking seriously about his Jewish identity, and where he embarked on the project of general relativity. Prague was also where he formed lasting friendships with novelist Max Brod, Zionist intellectual Hugo Bergmann, physicist Philipp Frank, and other important figures.

<i>Einstein in Bohemia</i> sheds light on this transformative period of Einstein's life and career, and brings vividly to life a beguiling city in the last years of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
9780691199214 Making It Count Ghosh, Arunabh Histories of Economic Life Asian history, China, 20th century history: c 1900  to c 2000, Population & demography, Sociology & anthropology, India 2020 360 <b>A history of how Chinese officials used statistics to define a new society in the early years of the People’s Republic of China </b>

In 1949, at the end of a long period of wars, one of the biggest challenges facing leaders of the new People’s Republic of China was how much they did not know. The government of one of the world’s largest nations was committed to fundamentally reengineering its society and economy via socialist planning while having almost no reliable statistical data about their own country. <i>Making It Count</i> is the history of efforts to resolve this “crisis in counting.” Drawing on a wealth of sources culled from China, India, and the United States, Arunabh Ghosh explores the choices made by political leaders, statisticians, academics, statistical workers, and even literary figures in attempts to know the nation through numbers.

Ghosh shows that early reliance on Soviet-inspired methods of exhaustive enumeration became increasingly untenable in China by the mid-1950s. Unprecedented and unexpected exchanges with Indian statisticians followed, as the Chinese sought to learn about the then-exciting new technology of random sampling. These developments were overtaken by the tumult of the Great Leap Forward (1958–61), when probabilistic and exhaustive methods were rejected and statistics was refashioned into an ethnographic enterprise. By acknowledging Soviet and Indian influences, Ghosh not only revises existing models of Cold War science but also globalizes wider developments in the history of statistics and data.

Anchored in debates about statistics and its relationship to state building, <i>Making It Count</i> offers fresh perspectives on China’s transition to socialism.
9780691199948 Hot Molecules, Cold Electrons Nahin, Paul J. Thermodynamics & heat, Engineering thermodynamics, Electrical engineering, Popular mathematics, Atomic & molecular physics, Impact of science & technology on society, Applied mathematics, History of science, Popular science 2020 232 <b>An entertaining mathematical exploration of the heat equation and its role in the triumphant development of the trans-Atlantic telegraph cable</b>

Heat, like gravity, shapes nearly every aspect of our world and universe, from how milk dissolves in coffee to how molten planets cool. The heat equation, a cornerstone of modern physics, demystifies such processes, painting a mathematical picture of the way heat diffuses through matter. Presenting the mathematics and history behind the heat equation, <i>Hot Molecules, Cold Electrons </i>tells the remarkable story of how this foundational idea brought about one of the greatest technological advancements of the modern era.

Paul Nahin vividly recounts the heat equation’s tremendous influence on society, showing how French mathematical physicist Joseph Fourier discovered, derived, and solved the equation in the early nineteenth century. Nahin then follows Scottish physicist William Thomson, whose further analysis of Fourier’s explorations led to the pioneering trans-Atlantic telegraph cable. This feat of engineering reduced the time it took to send a message across the ocean from weeks to minutes. Readers also learn that Thomson used Fourier’s solutions to calculate the age of the earth, and, in a bit of colorful lore, that writer Charles Dickens relied on the trans-Atlantic cable to save himself from a career-damaging scandal. The book’s mathematical and scientific explorations can be easily understood by anyone with a basic knowledge of high school calculus and physics, and MATLAB code is included to aid readers who would like to solve the heat equation themselves.

A testament to the intricate links between mathematics and physics, <i>Hot Molecules, Cold Electrons</i> offers a fascinating glimpse into the relationship between a formative equation and one of the most important developments in the history of human communication.
9780691200118 Einstein on Einstein Renn, Jürgen,Gutfreund, Hanoch   History of science, Biography: science,  technology & medicine, Philosophy of science, History of ideas, Physics 2020 216 <b>New perspectives on the iconic physicist's scientific and philosophical formation</b>

At the end of World War II, Albert Einstein was invited to write his intellectual autobiography for the Library of Living Philosophers. The resulting book was his uniquely personal <i>Autobiographical Notes</i>, a classic work in the history of science that explains the development of his ideas with unmatched warmth and clarity. Hanoch Gutfreund and Jürgen Renn introduce Einstein's scientific reflections to today's readers, tracing his intellectual formation from childhood to old age and offering a compelling portrait of the making of a philosopher-scientist.

<i>Einstein on Einstein</i> features the full English text of <i>Autobiographical Notes</i> along with incisive essays that place Einstein's reflections in the context of the different stages of his scientific life. Gutfreund and Renn draw on Einstein's writings, personal correspondence, and critical writings by Einstein's contemporaries to provide new perspectives on his greatest discoveries. Also included are Einstein's responses to his critics, which shed additional light on his scientific and philosophical worldview. Gutfreund and Renn quote extensively from Einstein's initial, unpublished attempts to formulate his response, and also look at another brief autobiographical text by Einstein, written a few weeks before his death, which is published here for the first time in English.

Complete with evocative drawings by artist Laurent Taudin, <i>Einstein on Einstein</i> illuminates the iconic physicist's journey to general relativity while situating his revolutionary ideas alongside other astonishing scientific breakthroughs of the twentieth century.
9780691200217 A Hierarchy of Turing Degrees Downey, Rod,Greenberg, Noam Annals of Mathematics Studies Mathematical logic, Computer science, Applied mathematics 2020 240 Computability theory is a branch of mathematical logic and computer science that has become increasingly relevant in recent years. The field has developed growing connections in diverse areas of mathematics, with applications in topology, group theory, and other subfields.

In <i>A Hierarchy of Turing Degrees</i>, Rod Downey and Noam Greenberg introduce a new hierarchy that allows them to classify the combinatorics of constructions from many areas of computability theory, including algorithmic randomness, Turing degrees, effectively closed sets, and effective structure theory. This unifying hierarchy gives rise to new natural definability results for Turing degree classes, demonstrating how dynamic constructions become reflected in definability. Downey and Greenberg present numerous construction techniques involving high-level nonuniform arguments, and their self-contained work is appropriate for graduate students and researchers.

Blending traditional and modern research results in computability theory, <i>A Hierarchy of Turing Degrees </i>establishes novel directions in the field.
9780691200255 The Molecular Switch Phillips, Rob   Biophysics, Molecular biology, Atomic & molecular physics, Nanotechnology 2020 440 A signature feature of living organisms is their ability to carry out purposeful actions by taking stock of the world around them. To that end, cells have an arsenal of signaling molecules linked together in signaling pathways, which switch between inactive and active conformations. <i>The Molecular Switch</i> articulates a biophysical perspective on signaling, showing how allostery—a powerful explanation of how molecules function across all biological domains—can be reformulated using equilibrium statistical mechanics, applied to diverse biological systems exhibiting switching behaviors, and successfully unify seemingly unrelated phenomena.

Rob Phillips weaves together allostery and statistical mechanics via a series of biological vignettes, each of which showcases an important biological question and accompanying physical analysis. Beginning with the study of ligand-gated ion channels and their role in problems ranging from muscle action to vision, Phillips then undertakes increasingly sophisticated case studies, from bacterial chemotaxis and quorum sensing to hemoglobin and its role in mammalian physiology. He looks at G-protein coupled receptors as well as the role of allosteric molecules in gene regulation. Phillips concludes by surveying problems in biological fidelity and offering a speculative chapter on the relationship between allostery and biological Maxwell demons.

Appropriate for graduate students and researchers in biophysics, physics, engineering, biology, and neuroscience, <i>The Molecular Switch</i> presents a unified, quantitative model for describing biological signaling phenomena.
9780691202150 Berkeley Lectures on p-adic Geometry Scholze, Peter,Weinstein, Jared Annals of Mathematics Studies Algebraic geometry, Number theory 2020 264 <i>Berkeley Lectures on p-adic Geometry</i> presents an important breakthrough in arithmetic geometry. In 2014, leading mathematician Peter Scholze delivered a series of lectures at the University of California, Berkeley, on new ideas in the theory of <i>p</i>-adic geometry. Building on his discovery of perfectoid spaces, Scholze introduced the concept of “diamonds,” which are to perfectoid spaces what algebraic spaces are to schemes. The introduction of diamonds, along with the development of a mixed-characteristic shtuka, set the stage for a critical advance in the discipline. In this book, Peter Scholze and Jared Weinstein show that the moduli space of mixed-characteristic shtukas is a diamond, raising the possibility of using the cohomology of such spaces to attack the Langlands conjectures for a reductive group over a <i>p</i>-adic field.

This book follows the informal style of the original Berkeley lectures, with one chapter per lecture. It explores <i>p-</i>adic and perfectoid spaces before laying out the newer theory of shtukas and their moduli spaces. Points of contact with other threads of the subject, including <i>p</i>-divisible groups, <i>p</i>-adic Hodge theory, and Rapoport-Zink spaces, are thoroughly explained. <i>Berkeley Lectures on p-adic Geometry</i> will be a useful resource for students and scholars working in arithmetic geometry and number theory.
9780691203317 Delay-Adaptive Linear Control Zhu, Yang,Krstic, Miroslav Princeton Series in Applied Mathematics Applied mathematics, Linear programming, Maths for engineers 2020 352 Actuator and sensor delays are among the most common dynamic phenomena in engineering practice, and when disregarded, they render controlled systems unstable. Over the past sixty years, predictor feedback has been a key tool for compensating such delays, but conventional predictor feedback algorithms assume that the delays and other parameters of a given system are known. When incorrect parameter values are used in the predictor, the resulting controller may be as destabilizing as without the delay compensation.

<i>Delay-Adaptive Linear Control</i> develops adaptive predictor feedback algorithms equipped with online estimators of unknown delays and other parameters. Such estimators are designed as nonlinear differential equations, which dynamically adjust the parameters of the predictor. The design and analysis of the adaptive predictors involves a Lyapunov stability study of systems whose dimension is infinite, because of the delays, and nonlinear, because of the parameter estimators. This comprehensive book solves adaptive delay compensation problems for systems with single and multiple inputs/outputs, unknown and distinct delays in different input channels, unknown delay kernels, unknown plant parameters, unmeasurable finite-dimensional plant states, and unmeasurable infinite-dimensional actuator states.

Presenting breakthroughs in adaptive control and control of delay systems, <i>Delay-Adaptive Linear Control</i> offers powerful new tools for the control engineer and the mathematician.
9780691201658 Science, the Endless Frontier Bush, Vannevar 2020 192 <b>The classic case for why government must support science—with a new essay by physicist and former congressman Rush Holt on what democracy needs from science today</b>

<i>Science, the Endless Frontier</i> is recognized as the landmark argument for the essential role of science in society and government’s responsibility to support scientific endeavors. First issued when Vannevar Bush was the director of the US Office of Scientific Research and Development during the Second World War, this classic remains vital in making the case that scientific progress is necessary to a nation’s health, security, and prosperity. Bush’s vision set the course for US science policy for more than half a century, building the world’s most productive scientific enterprise. Today, amid a changing funding landscape and challenges to science’s very credibility, <i>Science, the Endless Frontier</i> resonates as a powerful reminder that scientific progress and public well-being alike depend on the successful symbiosis between science and government.

This timely new edition presents this iconic text alongside a new companion essay from scientist and former congressman Rush Holt, who offers a brief introduction and consideration of what society needs most from science now. Reflecting on the report’s legacy and relevance along with its limitations, Holt contends that the public’s ability to cope with today’s issues—such as public health, the changing climate and environment, and challenging technologies in modern society—requires a more capacious understanding of what science can contribute. Holt considers how scientists should think of their obligation to society and what the public should demand from science, and he calls for a renewed understanding of science’s value for democracy and society at large.

A touchstone for concerned citizens, scientists, and policymakers, <i>Science, the Endless Frontier</i> endures as a passionate articulation of the power and potential of science.
9780691201665 Cosmology’s Century Peebles, P. J. E.   Cosmology & the universe, Astrophysics, History of science 2020 440 <b>From Nobel Prize–winning physicist P. J. E. Peebles, the story of cosmology from Einstein to today</b>

Modern cosmology began a century ago with Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity and his notion of a homogenous, philosophically satisfying cosmos. <i>Cosmology's Century</i> is the story of how generations of scientists built on these thoughts and many new measurements to arrive at a well-tested physical theory of the structure and evolution of our expanding universe.

In this landmark book, one of the world's most esteemed theoretical cosmologists offers an unparalleled personal perspective on how the field developed. P. J. E. Peebles was at the forefront of many of the greatest discoveries of the past century, making fundamental contributions to our understanding of the presence of helium and microwave radiation from the hot big bang, the measures of the distribution and motion of ordinary matter, and the new kind of dark matter that allows us to make sense of these results. Taking readers from the field's beginnings, Peebles describes how scientists working in independent directions found themselves converging on a theory of cosmic evolution interesting enough to warrant the rigorous testing it passes so well. He explores the major advances—some inspired by remarkable insights or perhaps just lucky guesses—as well as the wrong turns taken and the roads not explored. He shares recollections from major players in this story and provides a rare, inside look at how natural science is really done.

A monumental work, <i>Cosmology's Century</i> also emphasizes where the present theory is incomplete, suggesting exciting directions for continuing research.
9780691201672 The World According to Physics Al-Khalili, Jim Physics, Philosophy of science, History of ideas, Popular science 2020 336 <b>Quantum physicist, <i>New York Times</i> bestselling author, and BBC host Jim Al-Khalili offers a fascinating and illuminating look at what physics reveals about the world</b>

Shining a light on the most profound insights revealed by modern physics, Jim Al-Khalili invites us all to understand what this crucially important science tells us about the universe and the nature of reality itself.

Al-Khalili begins by introducing the fundamental concepts of space, time, energy, and matter, and then describes the three pillars of modern physics—quantum theory, relativity, and thermodynamics—showing how all three must come together if we are ever to have a full understanding of reality. Using wonderful examples and thought-provoking analogies, Al-Khalili illuminates the physics of the extreme cosmic and quantum scales, the speculative frontiers of the field, and the physics that underpins our everyday experiences and technologies, bringing the reader up to speed with the biggest ideas in physics in just a few sittings. Physics is revealed as an intrepid human quest for ever more foundational principles that accurately explain the natural world we see around us, an undertaking guided by core values such as honesty and doubt. The knowledge discovered by physics both empowers and humbles us, and still, physics continues to delve valiantly into the unknown.

Making even the most enigmatic scientific ideas accessible and captivating, this deeply insightful book illuminates why physics matters to everyone and calls one and all to share in the profound adventure of seeking truth in the world around us.
9780691201696 The Little Book of Cosmology Page, Lyman   Cosmology & the universe, Astrophysics, Physics, Space science 2020 152 <b>The cutting-edge science that is taking the measure of the universe</b>

<i>The Little Book of Cosmology</i> provides a breathtaking look at our universe on the grandest scales imaginable. Written by one of the world's leading experimental cosmologists, this short but deeply insightful book describes what scientists are revealing through precise measurements of the faint thermal afterglow of the Big Bang—known as the cosmic microwave background, or CMB—and how their findings are transforming our view of the cosmos.

Blending the latest findings in cosmology with essential concepts from physics, Lyman Page first helps readers to grasp the sheer enormity of the universe, explaining how to understand the history of its formation and evolution in space and time. Then he sheds light on how spatial variations in the CMB formed, how they reveal the age, size, and geometry of the universe, and how they offer a blueprint for the formation of cosmic structure.

Not only does Page explain current observations and measurements, he describes how they can be woven together into a unified picture to form the Standard Model of Cosmology. Yet much remains unknown, and this incisive book also describes the search for ever deeper knowledge at the field's frontiers—from quests to understand the nature of neutrinos and dark energy to investigations into the physics of the very early universe.
9780691218526 Global Nonlinear Stability of Schwarzschild Spacetime under Polarized Perturbations Szeftel, Jérémie,Klainerman, Sergiu Annals of Mathematics Studies 2020 856 <b>Essential mathematical insights into one of the most important and challenging open problems in general relativity—the stability of black holes</b>

One of the major outstanding questions about black holes is whether they remain stable when subject to small perturbations. An affirmative answer to this question would provide strong theoretical support for the physical reality of black holes. In this book, Sergiu Klainerman and Jérémie Szeftel take a first important step toward solving the fundamental black hole stability problem in general relativity by establishing the stability of nonrotating black holes—or Schwarzschild spacetimes—under so-called polarized perturbations. This restriction ensures that the final state of evolution is itself a Schwarzschild space. Building on the remarkable advances made in the past fifteen years in establishing quantitative linear stability, Klainerman and Szeftel introduce a series of new ideas to deal with the strongly nonlinear, covariant features of the Einstein equations. Most preeminent among them is the general covariant modulation (GCM) procedure that allows them to determine the center of mass frame and the mass of the final black hole state. Essential reading for mathematicians and physicists alike, this book introduces a rich theoretical framework relevant to situations such as the full setting of the Kerr stability conjecture.
9780691189710 Things Fall Together Tibbits, Skylar     2021 224 <b>From the visionary founder of the Self-Assembly Lab at MIT, a manifesto for the dawning age of active materials</b>

Things in life tend to fall apart. Cars break down. Buildings fall into disrepair. Personal items deteriorate. Yet today's researchers are exploiting newly understood properties of matter to program materials that physically sense, adapt, and fall together instead of apart. These materials open new directions for industrial innovation and challenge us to rethink the way we build and collaborate with our environment. <i>Things Fall Together</i> is a provocative guide to this emerging, often mind-bending reality, presenting a bold vision for harnessing the intelligence embedded in the material world.

Drawing on his pioneering work on self-assembly and programmable material technologies, Skylar Tibbits lays out the core, frequently counterintuitive ideas and strategies that animate this new approach to design and innovation. From furniture that builds itself to shoes printed flat that jump into shape to islands that grow themselves, he describes how matter can compute and exhibit behaviors that we typically associate with biological organisms, and challenges our fundamental assumptions about what physical materials can do and how we can interact with them. Intelligent products today often rely on electronics, batteries, and complicated mechanisms. Tibbits offers a different approach, showing how we can design simple and elegant material intelligence that may one day animate and improve itself—and along the way help us build a more sustainable future.

Compelling and beautifully designed, <i>Things Fall Together</i> provides an insider's perspective on the materials revolution that lies ahead, revealing the spectacular possibilities for designing active materials that can self-assemble, collaborate, and one day even evolve and design on their own.
9780691219837 Hard to Break Poldrack, Russell A. 2021 232 <b>The neuroscience of why bad habits are so hard to break—and how evidence-based strategies can help us change our behavior more effectively</b>

We all have habits we’d like to break, but for many of us it can be nearly impossible to do so. There is a good reason for this: the brain is a habit-building machine. In <i>Hard to Break</i>, leading neuroscientist Russell Poldrack provides an engaging and authoritative account of the science of how habits are built in the brain, why they are so hard to break, and how evidence-based strategies may help us change unwanted behaviors.

<i>Hard to Break</i> offers a clear-eyed tour of what neuroscience tells us about habit change and debunks “easy fixes” that aren’t backed by science. It explains how dopamine is essential for building habits and how the battle between habits and intentional goal-directed behaviors reflects a competition between different brain systems. Along the way, we learn how cues trigger habits; why we should make rules, not decisions; how the stimuli of the modern world hijack the brain’s habit machinery and lead to drug abuse and other addictions; and how neuroscience may one day enable us to hack our habits. Shifting from the individual to society, the book also discusses the massive habit changes that will be needed to address the biggest challenges of our time.

Moving beyond the hype to offer a deeper understanding of the biology of habits in the brain, <i>Hard to Break</i> reveals how we might be able to make the changes we desire—and why we should have greater empathy with ourselves and others who struggle to do so.
9780691213514 The Spike Humphries, Mark     2021 232 <b>The story of a neural impulse and what it reveals about how our brains work</b>

We see the last cookie in the box and think, can I take that? We reach a hand out. In the 2.1 seconds that this impulse travels through our brain, billions of neurons communicate with one another, sending blips of voltage through our sensory and motor regions. Neuroscientists call these blips “spikes.” Spikes enable us to do everything: talk, eat, run, see, plan, and decide. In <i>The Spike</i>, Mark Humphries takes readers on the epic journey of a spike through a single, brief reaction. In vivid language, Humphries tells the story of what happens in our brain, what we know about spikes, and what we still have left to understand about them.

Drawing on decades of research in neuroscience, Humphries explores how spikes are born, how they are transmitted, and how they lead us to action. He dives into previously unanswered mysteries: Why are most neurons silent? What causes neurons to fire spikes spontaneously, without input from other neurons or the outside world? Why do most spikes fail to reach any destination? Humphries presents a new vision of the brain, one where fundamental computations are carried out by spontaneous spikes that predict what will happen in the world, helping us to perceive, decide, and react quickly enough for our survival.

Traversing neuroscience’s expansive terrain, <i>The Spike </i>follows a single electrical response to illuminate how our extraordinary brains work.
9780691222820 Do Not Erase Wynne, Jessica 2021 240 <b>A photographic exploration of mathematicians’ chalkboards</b>

“A mathematician, like a painter or poet, is a maker of patterns,” wrote the British mathematician G. H. Hardy. In <i>Do Not Erase</i>, photographer Jessica Wynne presents remarkable examples of this idea through images of mathematicians’ chalkboards. While other fields have replaced chalkboards with whiteboards and digital presentations, mathematicians remain loyal to chalk for puzzling out their ideas and communicating their research. Wynne offers more than one hundred stunning photographs of these chalkboards, gathered from a diverse group of mathematicians around the world. The photographs are accompanied by essays from each mathematician, reflecting on their work and processes. Together, pictures and words provide an illuminating meditation on the unique relationships among mathematics, art, and creativity.

The mathematicians featured in this collection comprise exciting new voices alongside established figures, including Sun-Yung Alice Chang, Alain Connes, Misha Gromov, Andre Neves, Kasso Okoudjou, Peter Shor, Christina Sormani, Terence Tao, Claire Voisin, and many others. The companion essays give insights into how the chalkboard serves as a special medium for mathematical expression. The volume also includes an introduction by the author, an afterword by <i>New Yorker</i> writer Alec Wilkinson, and biographical information for each contributor.

<i>Do Not Erase</i> is a testament to the myriad ways that mathematicians use their chalkboards to reveal the conceptual and visual beauty of their discipline—shapes, figures, formulas, and conjectures created through imagination, argument, and speculation.
9780691212654 Running Out Bessire, Lucas     2021 264 <b>An intimate reckoning with aquifer depletion in America's heartland</b>

The Ogallala aquifer has nourished life on the American Great Plains for millennia. But less than a century of unsustainable irrigation farming has taxed much of the aquifer beyond repair. The imminent depletion of the Ogallala and other aquifers around the world is a defining planetary crisis of our times. <i>Running Out</i> offers a uniquely personal account of aquifer depletion and the deeper layers through which it gains meaning and force.

Anthropologist Lucas Bessire journeyed back to western Kansas, where five generations of his family lived as irrigation farmers and ranchers, to try to make sense of this vital resource and its loss. His search for water across the drying High Plains brings the reader face to face with the stark realities of industrial agriculture, eroding democratic norms, and surreal interpretations of a looming disaster. Yet the destination is far from predictable, as the book seeks to move beyond the words and genres through which destruction is often known. Instead, this journey into the morass of eradication offers a series of unexpected discoveries about what it means to inherit the troubled legacies of the past and how we can take responsibility for a more inclusive, sustainable future.

An urgent and unsettling meditation on environmental change, <i>Running Out</i> is a revelatory account of family, complicity, loss, and what it means to find your way back home.
9780691219875 The Doctrine of Triangles Van Brummelen, Glen 2021 392 <b>An interdisciplinary history of trigonometry from the mid-sixteenth century to the early twentieth</b>

<i>The Doctrine of Triangles</i> offers an interdisciplinary history of trigonometry that spans four centuries, starting in 1550 and concluding in the 1900s. Glen Van Brummelen tells the story of trigonometry as it evolved from an instrument for understanding the heavens to a practical tool, used in fields such as surveying and navigation. In Europe, China, and America, trigonometry aided and was itself transformed by concurrent mathematical revolutions, as well as the rise of science and technology.

Following its uses in mid-sixteenth-century Europe as the "foot of the ladder to the stars" and the mathematical helpmate of astronomy, trigonometry became a ubiquitous tool for modeling various phenomena, including animal populations and sound waves. In the late sixteenth century, trigonometry increasingly entered the physical world through the practical disciplines, and its societal reach expanded with the invention of logarithms. Calculus shifted mathematical reasoning from geometric to algebraic patterns of thought, and trigonometry’s participation in this new mathematical analysis grew, encouraging such innovations as complex numbers and non-Euclidean geometry. Meanwhile in China, trigonometry was evolving rapidly too, sometimes merging with indigenous forms of knowledge, and with Western discoveries. In the nineteenth century, trigonometry became even more integral to science and industry as a fundamental part of the science and engineering toolbox, and a staple subject in high school classrooms.

A masterful combination of scholarly rigor and compelling narrative, <i>The Doctrine of Triangles</i> brings trigonometry’s rich historical past full circle into the modern era.
9780691218717 Machine Learning in Asset Pricing Nagel, Stefan Princeton Lectures in Finance   2021 160 <b>A groundbreaking, authoritative introduction to how machine learning can be applied to asset pricing</b>

Investors in financial markets are faced with an abundance of potentially value-relevant information from a wide variety of different sources. In such data-rich, high-dimensional environments, techniques from the rapidly advancing field of machine learning (ML) are well-suited for solving prediction problems. Accordingly, ML methods are quickly becoming part of the toolkit in asset pricing research and quantitative investing. In this book, Stefan Nagel examines the promises and challenges of ML applications in asset pricing.

Asset pricing problems are substantially different from the settings for which ML tools were developed originally. To realize the potential of ML methods, they must be adapted for the specific conditions in asset pricing applications. Economic considerations, such as portfolio optimization, absence of near arbitrage, and investor learning can guide the selection and modification of ML tools. Beginning with a brief survey of basic supervised ML methods, Nagel then discusses the application of these techniques in empirical research in asset pricing and shows how they promise to advance the theoretical modeling of financial markets.

<i>Machine Learning in Asset Pricing</i> presents the exciting possibilities of using cutting-edge methods in research on financial asset valuation.
9780691215396 The Spirit of Green Nordhaus, William D. 2021 368 <b>From a Nobel Prize–winning pioneer in environmental economics, an innovative account of how and why “green thinking” could cure many of the world’s most serious problems—from global warming to pandemics</b>

Solving the world’s biggest problems—from climate catastrophe and pandemics to wildfires and corporate malfeasance—requires, more than anything else, coming up with new ways to manage the powerful interactions that surround us. For carbon emissions and other environmental damage, this means ensuring that those responsible pay their full costs rather than continuing to pass them along to others, including future generations. In <i>The Spirit of Green</i>, Nobel Prize–winning economist William Nordhaus describes a new way of green thinking that would help us overcome our biggest challenges without sacrificing economic prosperity, in large part by accounting for the spillover costs of economic collisions.

In a discussion that ranges from the history of the environmental movement to the Green New Deal, Nordhaus explains how the spirit of green thinking provides a compelling and hopeful new perspective on modern life. At the heart of green thinking is a recognition that the globalized world is shaped not by isolated individuals but rather by innumerable interactions inside and outside the economy. He shows how rethinking economic efficiency, sustainability, politics, profits, taxes, individual ethics, corporate social responsibility, finance, and more would improve the effectiveness and equity of our society. And he offers specific solutions—on how to price carbon, how to pursue low-carbon technologies, how to design an efficient tax system, and how to foster international cooperation through climate clubs.

The result is a groundbreaking new vision of how we can have our environment and our economy too.
9780691215518 The Self-Assembling Brain Hiesinger, Peter Robin     2021 384 <b>What neurobiology and artificial intelligence tell us about how the brain builds itself </b>

How does a neural network become a brain? While neurobiologists investigate how nature accomplishes this feat, computer scientists interested in artificial intelligence strive to achieve this through technology. <i>The Self-Assembling Brain</i> tells the stories of both fields, exploring the historical and modern approaches taken by the scientists pursuing answers to the quandary: What information is necessary to make an intelligent neural network?

As Peter Robin Hiesinger argues, “the information problem” underlies both fields, motivating the questions driving forward the frontiers of research. How does genetic information unfold during the years-long process of human brain development—and is there a quicker path to creating human-level artificial intelligence? Is the biological brain just messy hardware, which scientists can improve upon by running learning algorithms on computers? Can AI bypass the evolutionary programming of “grown” networks? Through a series of fictional discussions between researchers across disciplines, complemented by in-depth seminars, Hiesinger explores these tightly linked questions, highlighting the challenges facing scientists, their different disciplinary perspectives and approaches, as well as the common ground shared by those interested in the development of biological brains and AI systems. In the end, Hiesinger contends that the information content of biological and artificial neural networks must unfold in an algorithmic process requiring time and energy. There is no genome and no blueprint that depicts the final product. The self-assembling brain knows no shortcuts.

Written for readers interested in advances in neuroscience and artificial intelligence, <i>The Self-Assembling Brain</i> looks at how neural networks grow smarter.
9780691216508 Breaking the Social Media Prism Bail, Chris 2021 240 <b>A revealing look at how user behavior is powering deep social divisions online—and how we might yet defeat political tribalism on social media</b>

In an era of increasing social isolation, platforms like Facebook and Twitter are among the most important tools we have to understand each other. We use social media as a mirror to decipher our place in society but, as Chris Bail explains, it functions more like a prism that distorts our identities, empowers status-seeking extremists, and renders moderates all but invisible. <i>Breaking the Social Media Prism</i> challenges common myths about echo chambers, foreign misinformation campaigns, and radicalizing algorithms, revealing that the solution to political tribalism lies deep inside ourselves.

Drawing on innovative online experiments and in-depth interviews with social media users from across the political spectrum, this book explains why stepping outside of our echo chambers can make us more polarized, not less. Bail takes you inside the minds of online extremists through vivid narratives that trace their lives on the platforms and off—detailing how they dominate public discourse at the expense of the moderate majority. Wherever you stand on the spectrum of user behavior and political opinion, he offers fresh solutions to counter political tribalism from the bottom up and the top down. He introduces new apps and bots to help readers avoid misperceptions and engage in better conversations with the other side. Finally, he explores what the virtual public square might look like if we could hit "reset" and redesign social media from scratch through a first-of-its-kind experiment on a new social media platform built for scientific research.

Providing data-driven recommendations for strengthening our social media connections, <i>Breaking the Social Media Prism</i> shows how to combat online polarization without deleting our accounts.
9780691216638 Power to the Public McGuinness, Tara Dawson,Schank, Hana     2021 208 <b>“Worth a read for anyone who cares about making change happen.”—Barack Obama</b>

<b>A powerful new blueprint for how governments and nonprofits can harness the power of digital technology to help solve the most serious problems of the twenty-first century</b>

As the speed and complexity of the world increases, governments and nonprofit organizations need new ways to effectively tackle the critical challenges of our time—from pandemics and global warming to social media warfare. In <i>Power to the Public</i>, Tara Dawson McGuinness and Hana Schank describe a revolutionary new approach—public interest technology—that has the potential to transform the way governments and nonprofits around the world solve problems. Through inspiring stories about successful projects ranging from a texting service for teenagers in crisis to a streamlined foster care system, the authors show how public interest technology can make the delivery of services to the public more effective and efficient.

At its heart, public interest technology means putting users at the center of the policymaking process, using data and metrics in a smart way, and running small experiments and pilot programs before scaling up. And while this approach may well involve the innovative use of digital technology, technology alone is no panacea—and some of the best solutions may even be decidedly low-tech.

Clear-eyed yet profoundly optimistic, <i>Power to the Public</i> presents a powerful blueprint for how government and nonprofits can help solve society’s most serious problems.
9780691222370 Why Trust Science? Oreskes, Naomi Philosophy of science, History of science, Popular science 2021 392 <b>Why the social character of scientific knowledge makes it trustworthy</b>

Are doctors right when they tell us vaccines are safe? Should we take climate experts at their word when they warn us about the perils of global warming? Why should we trust science when so many of our political leaders don't? Naomi Oreskes offers a bold and compelling defense of science, revealing why the social character of scientific knowledge is its greatest strength—and the greatest reason we can trust it. Tracing the history and philosophy of science from the late nineteenth century to today, this timely and provocative book features a new preface by Oreskes and critical responses by climate experts Ottmar Edenhofer and Martin Kowarsch, political scientist Jon Krosnick, philosopher of science Marc Lange, and science historian Susan Lindee, as well as a foreword by political theorist Stephen Macedo.
9780691208039 Along Came Google Marcum, Deanna,Schonfeld, Roger C.     2021 208 <b>An incisive history of the controversial Google Books project and the ongoing quest for a universal digital library</b>

Libraries have long talked about providing comprehensive access to information for everyone. But when Google announced in 2004 that it planned to digitize books to make the world's knowledge accessible to all, questions were raised about the roles and responsibilities of libraries, the rights of authors and publishers, and whether a powerful corporation should be the conveyor of such a fundamental public good. <i>Along Came Google</i> traces the history of Google's book digitization project and its implications for us today.

Deanna Marcum and Roger Schonfeld draw on in-depth interviews with those who both embraced and resisted Google's plans, from librarians and technologists to university leaders, tech executives, and the heads of leading publishing houses. They look at earlier digital initiatives to provide open access to knowledge, and describe how Google founders Sergey Brin and Larry Page made the case for a universal digital library and drew on their company's considerable financial resources to make it a reality. Marcum and Schonfeld examine how librarians and scholars organized a legal response to Google, and reveal the missed opportunities when a settlement with the tech giant failed.

<i>Along Came Google</i> sheds light on the transformational effects of the Google Books project on scholarship and discusses how we can continue to think imaginatively and collaboratively about expanding the digital availability of knowledge.
9780691226705 The Genetic Lottery Harden, Kathryn Paige 2021 320 <b>A provocative and timely case for how the science of genetics can help create a more just and equal society</b>

In recent years, scientists like Kathryn Paige Harden have shown that DNA makes us different, in our personalities and in our health—and in ways that matter for educational and economic success in our current society.

In <i>The Genetic Lottery</i>, Harden introduces readers to the latest genetic science, dismantling dangerous ideas about racial superiority and challenging us to grapple with what equality really means in a world where people are born different. Weaving together personal stories with scientific evidence, Harden shows why our refusal to recognize the power of DNA perpetuates the myth of meritocracy, and argues that we must acknowledge the role of genetic luck if we are ever to create a fair society.

Reclaiming genetic science from the legacy of eugenics, this groundbreaking book offers a bold new vision of society where everyone thrives, regardless of how one fares in the genetic lottery.
9780691216621 The Book Proposal Book Portwood-Stacer, Laura Skills for Scholars   2021 184 <b>A step-by-step guide to crafting a compelling scholarly book proposal—and seeing your book through to successful publication</b>

The scholarly book proposal may be academia’s most mysterious genre. You have to write one to get published, but most scholars receive no training on how to do so—and you may have never even seen a proposal before you’re expected to produce your own. <i>The Book Proposal Book </i>cuts through the mystery and guides prospective authors step by step through the process of crafting a compelling proposal and pitching it to university presses and other academic publishers.

Laura Portwood-Stacer, an experienced developmental editor and publishing consultant for academic authors, shows how to select the right presses to target, identify audiences and competing titles, and write a project description that will grab the attention of editors—breaking the entire process into discrete, manageable tasks. The book features over fifty time-tested tips to make your proposal stand out; sample prospectuses, a letter of inquiry, and a response to reader reports from real authors; optional worksheets and checklists; answers to dozens of the most common questions about the scholarly publishing process; and much, much more.

Whether you’re hoping to publish your first book or you’re a seasoned author with an unfinished proposal languishing on your hard drive, <i>The Book Proposal Book</i> provides honest, empathetic, and invaluable advice on how to overcome common sticking points and get your book published. It also shows why, far from being merely a hurdle to clear, a well-conceived proposal can help lead to an outstanding book.
9780691219899 Visual Differential Geometry and Forms Needham, Tristan 2021 584 <b>An inviting, intuitive, and visual </b> <b>exploration of differential geometry and forms</b>

<i>Visual Differential Geometry and Forms</i> fulfills two principal goals. In the first four acts, Tristan Needham puts the geometry back into differential geometry<i>.</i> Using 235 hand-drawn diagrams, Needham deploys Newton’s geometrical methods to provide geometrical explanations of the classical results. In the fifth act, he offers the first undergraduate introduction to differential forms that treats advanced topics in an intuitive and geometrical manner.

Unique features of the first four acts include: four distinct geometrical proofs of the fundamentally important Global Gauss-Bonnet theorem, providing a stunning link between local geometry and global topology; a simple, geometrical proof of Gauss’s famous Theorema Egregium; a complete geometrical treatment of the Riemann curvature tensor of an <i>n</i>-manifold; and a detailed geometrical treatment of Einstein’s field equation, describing gravity as curved spacetime (General Relativity), together with its implications for gravitational waves, black holes, and cosmology. The final act elucidates such topics as the unification of all the integral theorems of vector calculus; the elegant reformulation of Maxwell’s equations of electromagnetism in terms of 2-forms; de Rham cohomology; differential geometry via Cartan’s method of moving frames; and the calculation of the Riemann tensor using curvature 2-forms. Six of the seven chapters of Act V can be read completely independently from the rest of the book.

Requiring only basic calculus and geometry, <i>Visual Differential Geometry and Forms</i> provocatively rethinks the way this important area of mathematics should be considered and taught.
9780691223612 A Brief Welcome to the Universe Tyson, Neil deGrasse,Gott, J. Richard,Strauss, Michael     2021 248 <b>A pocket-style edition based on the <i>New York Times</i> bestseller</b>

<i>A Brief Welcome to the Universe</i> offers a breathtaking tour of the cosmos, from planets, stars, and galaxies to black holes and time loops. Bestselling authors and acclaimed astrophysicists Neil deGrasse Tyson, Michael A. Strauss, and J. Richard Gott take readers on an unforgettable journey of exploration to reveal how our universe actually works.

Propelling you from our home solar system to the outermost frontiers of space, this book builds your cosmic insight and perspective through a marvelously entertaining narrative. How do stars live and die? What are the prospects of intelligent life elsewhere in the universe? How did the universe begin? Why is it expanding and accelerating? Is our universe alone or part of an infinite multiverse? Exploring these and many other questions, this pocket-friendly book is your passport into the wonders of our evolving cosmos.
9780691223599 How to Innovate Aristotle,  Ancient Wisdom for Modern Readers 2021 200 <b>What we can learn about fostering innovation and creative thinking from some of the most inventive people of all times—the ancient Greeks</b>

When it comes to innovation and creative thinking, we are still catching up with the ancient Greeks. Between 800 and 300 BCE, they changed the world with astonishing inventions—democracy, the alphabet, philosophy, logic, rhetoric, mathematical proof, rational medicine, coins, architectural canons, drama, lifelike sculpture, and competitive athletics. None of this happened by accident. Recognizing the power of the new and trying to understand and promote the conditions that make it possible, the Greeks were the first to write about innovation and even the first to record a word for forging something new. In short, the Greeks “invented” innovation itself—and they still have a great deal to teach us about it.

<i>How to Innovate </i>is an engaging and entertaining introduction to key ideas about—and examples of—innovation and creative thinking from ancient Greece. Armand D’Angour provides lively new translations of selections from Aristotle, Diodorus, and Athenaeus, with the original Greek text on facing pages. These writings illuminate and illustrate timeless principles of creating something new—borrowing or adapting existing ideas or things, cross-fertilizing disparate elements, or criticizing and disrupting current conditions.

From the true story of Archimedes’s famous “Eureka!” moment, to Aristotle’s thoughts on physical change and political innovation, to accounts of how disruption and competition drove invention in Greek warfare and the visual arts, <i>How to Innovate </i>is filled with valuable insights about how change happens—and how to bring it about.
9780691226750 A City Is Not a Computer Mattern, Shannon Places Books   2021 200 <b>A bold reassessment of "smart cities" that reveals what is lost when we conceive of our urban spaces as computers</b>

Computational models of urbanism—smart cities that use data-driven planning and algorithmic administration—promise to deliver new urban efficiencies and conveniences. Yet these models limit our understanding of what we can know about a city. <i>A City Is Not a Computer</i> reveals how cities encompass myriad forms of local and indigenous intelligences and knowledge institutions, arguing that these resources are a vital supplement and corrective to increasingly prevalent algorithmic models.

Shannon Mattern begins by examining the ethical and ontological implications of urban technologies and computational models, discussing how they shape and in many cases profoundly limit our engagement with cities. She looks at the methods and underlying assumptions of data-driven urbanism, and demonstrates how the "city-as-computer" metaphor, which undergirds much of today's urban policy and design, reduces place-based knowledge to information processing. Mattern then imagines how we might sustain institutions and infrastructures that constitute more diverse, open, inclusive urban forms. She shows how the public library functions as a steward of urban intelligence, and describes the scales of upkeep needed to sustain a city's many moving parts, from spinning hard drives to bridge repairs.

Incorporating insights from urban studies, data science, and media and information studies, <i>A City Is Not a Computer</i> offers a visionary new approach to urban planning and design.
9780691228891 When the Sahara Was Green Williams, Martin 2021 240 <b>The little-known history of how the Sahara was transformed from a green and fertile land into the largest hot desert in the world</b>

The Sahara is the largest hot desert in the world, equal in size to China or the United States. Yet, this arid expanse was once a verdant, pleasant land, fed by rivers and lakes. The Sahara sustained abundant plant and animal life, such as Nile perch, turtles, crocodiles, and hippos, and attracted prehistoric hunters and herders. What transformed this land of lakes into a sea of sands? <i>When the Sahara Was Green</i> describes the remarkable history of Earth’s greatest desert—including why its climate changed, the impact this had on human populations, and how scientists uncovered the evidence for these extraordinary events.

From the Sahara’s origins as savanna woodland and grassland to its current arid incarnation, Martin Williams takes us on a vivid journey through time. He describes how the desert’s ancient rocks were first fashioned, how dinosaurs roamed freely across the land, and how it was later covered in tall trees. Along the way, Williams addresses many questions: Why was the Sahara previously much wetter, and will it be so again? Did humans contribute to its desertification? What was the impact of extreme climatic episodes—such as prolonged droughts—upon the Sahara’s geology, ecology, and inhabitants? Williams also shows how plants, animals, and humans have adapted to the Sahara and what lessons we might learn for living in harmony with the harshest, driest conditions in an ever-changing global environment.

A valuable look at how an iconic region has changed over millions of years, <i>When the Sahara Was Green</i> reveals the desert’s surprising past to reflect on its present, as well as its possible future.
9780691224541 Fixing the Climate Victor, David G.,Charles F. Sabel     2021 228 <b>A compelling argument for solving the global climate crisis through </b><b>local partnerships and experimentation</b>

Global climate diplomacy—from the Kyoto Protocol to the Paris Agreement—is not working. Despite decades of sustained negotiations by world leaders, the climate crisis continues to worsen. The solution is within our grasp—but we will not achieve it through top-down global treaties or grand bargains among nations.

Charles Sabel and David Victor explain why the profound transformations needed for deep cuts in emissions must arise locally, with government and business working together to experiment with new technologies, quickly learn the best solutions, and spread that information globally. Sabel and Victor show how some of the most iconic successes in environmental policy were products of this experimentalist approach to problem solving, such as the Montreal Protocol on the ozone layer, the rise of electric vehicles, and Europe’s extraordinary success in controlling water pollution. They argue that the Paris Agreement is at best an umbrella under which local experimentation can push the technological frontier and help societies around the world learn how to deploy the technologies and policies needed to tackle this daunting global problem.

A visionary book that fundamentally reorients our thinking about the climate crisis, <i>Fixing the Climate</i> is a road map to institutional design that can finally lead to self-sustaining reductions in emissions that years of global diplomacy have failed to deliver.
9780691225722 The Best Writing on Mathematics 2021 Pitici, Mircea The Best Writing on Mathematics 2021 320 <b>The year’s finest mathematical writing from around the world</b>

This annual anthology brings together the year’s finest mathematics writing from around the world—and you don’t need to be a mathematician to enjoy the pieces collected here. These essays—from leading names and fresh new voices—delve into the history, philosophy, teaching, and everyday aspects of math, offering surprising insights into its nature, meaning, and practice, and taking readers behind the scenes of today’s hottest mathematical debates.

Here, Viktor Blåsjö gives a brief history of “lockdown mathematics”; Yelda Nasifoglu decodes the politics of a seventeenth-century play in which the characters are geometric shapes; and Andrew Lewis-Pye explains the basic algorithmic rules and computational procedures behind cryptocurrencies. In other essays, Terence Tao candidly recalls the adventures and misadventures of growing up to become a leading mathematician; Natalie Wolchover shows how old math gives new clues about whether time really flows; and David Hand discusses the problem of “dark data”—information that is missing or ignored. And there is much, much more.
9780691225739 Supersingular p-adic L-functions, Maass-Shimura Operators and Waldspurger Formulas Kriz, Daniel Annals of Mathematics Studies Number theory, Algebra 2021   <b>A groundbreaking contribution to number theory that unifies classical and modern results</b>

This book develops a new theory of <i>p</i>-adic modular forms on modular curves, extending Katz's classical theory to the supersingular locus. The main novelty is to move to infinite level and extend coefficients to period sheaves coming from relative <i>p</i>-adic Hodge theory. This makes it possible to trivialize the Hodge bundle on the infinite-level modular curve by a "canonical differential" that restricts to the Katz canonical differential on the ordinary Igusa tower. Daniel Kriz defines generalized <i>p</i>-adic modular forms as sections of relative period sheaves transforming under the Galois group of the modular curve by weight characters. He introduces the fundamental de Rham period, measuring the position of the Hodge filtration in relative de Rham cohomology. This period can be viewed as a counterpart to Scholze's Hodge-Tate period, and the two periods satisfy a Legendre-type relation. Using these periods, Kriz constructs splittings of the Hodge filtration on the infinite-level modular curve, defining <i>p</i>-adic Maass-Shimura operators that act on generalized <i>p</i>-adic modular forms as weight-raising operators. Through analysis of the <i>p</i>-adic properties of these Maass-Shimura operators, he constructs new <i>p</i>-adic <i>L</i>-functions interpolating central critical Rankin-Selberg <i>L</i>-values, giving analogues of the <i>p</i>-adic <i>L</i>-functions of Katz, Bertolini-Darmon-Prasanna, and Liu-Zhang-Zhang for imaginary quadratic fields in which <i>p</i> is inert or ramified. These <i>p</i>-adic <i>L</i>-functions yield new <i>p</i>-adic Waldspurger formulas at special values.
9780691225999 What Makes Us Smart Gershman, Samuel 2021 264 <b>How a computational framework can account for the successes and failures of human cognition</b>

At the heart of human intelligence rests a fundamental puzzle: How are we incredibly smart and stupid at the same time? No existing machine can match the power and flexibility of human perception, language, and reasoning. Yet, we routinely commit errors that reveal the failures of our thought processes. <i>What Makes Us Smart</i> makes sense of this paradox by arguing that our cognitive errors are not haphazard. Rather, they are the inevitable consequences of a brain optimized for efficient inference and decision making within the constraints of time, energy, and memory—in other words, data and resource limitations. Framing human intelligence in terms of these constraints, Samuel Gershman shows how a deeper computational logic underpins the “stupid” errors of human cognition.

Embarking on a journey across psychology, neuroscience, computer science, linguistics, and economics, Gershman presents unifying principles that govern human intelligence. First, inductive bias: any system that makes inferences based on limited data must constrain its hypotheses in some way before observing data. Second, approximation bias: any system that makes inferences and decisions with limited resources must make approximations. Applying these principles to a range of computational errors made by humans, Gershman demonstrates that intelligent systems designed to meet these constraints yield characteristically human errors.

Examining how humans make intelligent and maladaptive decisions, <i>What Makes Us Smart</i> delves into the successes and failures of cognition.
9780691230078 Robot Ecology Egerstedt, Magnus   Robotics, Applied ecology, Environmental science,  engineering & technology 2021 256 <b>A</b><b> revolutionary new framework that draws on insights from ecology for the design and analysis of long-duration robots</b>

Robots are increasingly leaving the confines of laboratories, warehouses, and manufacturing facilities, venturing into agriculture and other settings where they must operate in uncertain conditions over long timescales. This multidisciplinary book draws on the principles of ecology to show how robots can take full advantage of the environments they inhabit, including as sources of energy.

Magnus Egerstedt introduces a revolutionary new design paradigm—robot ecology—that makes it possible to achieve long-duration autonomy while avoiding catastrophic failures. Central to ecology is the idea that the richness of an organism’s behavior is a function of the environmental constraints imposed by its habitat. Moving beyond traditional strategies that focus on optimal policies for making robots achieve targeted tasks, Egerstedt explores how to use survivability constraints to produce both effective and provably safe robot behaviors. He blends discussions of ecological principles with the development of control barrier functions as a formal approach to constraint-based control design, and provides an in-depth look at the design of the SlothBot, a slow and energy-efficient robot used for environmental monitoring and conservation.

Visionary in scope, <i>Robot Ecology</i> presents a comprehensive and unified methodology for designing robots that can function over long durations in diverse natural environments.
9780691227597 In Pursuit of Zeta-3 Nahin, Paul J. 2021 344 <b>An engrossing look at the history and importance of a centuries-old but still unanswered math problem</b>

For centuries, mathematicians the world over have tried, and failed, to solve the zeta-3 problem. Math genius Leonhard Euler attempted it in the 1700s and came up short. The straightforward puzzle considers if there exists a simple symbolic formula for the following: 1+(1/2)^3+(1/3)^3+(1/4)^3+. . . . But why is this issue—the sum of the reciprocals of the positive integers cubed—so important? With <i>In Pursuit of Zeta-3</i>, popular math writer Paul Nahin investigates the history and significance of this mathematical conundrum.

Drawing on detailed examples, historical anecdotes, and even occasionally poetry, Nahin sheds light on the richness of the nature of zeta-3. He shows its intimate connections to the Riemann hypothesis, another mathematical mystery that has stumped mathematicians for nearly two centuries. He looks at its links with Euler’s achievements and explores the modern research area of Euler sums, where zeta-3 occurs frequently. An exact solution to the zeta-3 question wouldn’t simply satisfy pure mathematical interest: it would have critical ramifications for applications in physics and engineering, such as quantum electrodynamics. Challenge problems with detailed solutions and MATLAB code are included at the end of each of the book’s sections.

Detailing the trials and tribulations of mathematicians who have approached one of the field’s great unsolved riddles, <i>In Pursuit of Zeta-3</i> will tantalize curious math enthusiasts everywhere.
9780691230542 The Essence of Software Jackson, Daniel     2021 376 A revolutionary concept-based approach to thinking about, designing, and interacting with software

As our dependence on technology increases, the design of software—which shapes functionality and user experience—matters more than ever before. Why then is so much software flawed? Why hasn’t there been a systematic and scalable way to create software that is easy to use, robust, and secure?

Examining these issues in depth, <i>The Essence of Software</i> introduces a theory of software design that gives new answers to old questions. Daniel Jackson explains that a software system should be viewed as a collection of interacting concepts, breaking the functionality into manageable parts and providing a new framework for thinking about design. Through this radical and original perspective, Jackson lays out a practical and coherent path, accessible to anyone—from strategist and marketer to UX designer, architect, or programmer—for making software that is empowering, dependable, and a delight to use.

Jackson explores every aspect of concepts—what they are and aren’t, how to identify them, how to define them, and more—and offers prescriptive principles and practical tips that can be applied cost-effectively in a wide range of domains. He applies these ideas to contemporary software designs, drawing examples from leading software manufacturers such as Adobe, Apple, Dropbox, Facebook, Google, Microsoft, Twitter, and others. Jackson shows how concepts let designers preserve and reuse design knowledge, rather than starting from scratch in every project.

An argument against the status quo and a guide to improvement for both working designers and novices to the field,
The Essence of Software brings a fresh approach to software and its creation.
9780691232072 Experiments of the Mind Martin, Emily 2021 312 An inside view of the experimental practices of cognitive psychology—and their influence on the addictive nature of social media

Experimental cognitive psychology research is a hidden force in our online lives. We engage with it, often unknowingly, whenever we download a health app, complete a Facebook quiz, or rate our latest purchase. How did experimental psychology come to play an outsized role in these developments? <i>Experiments of the Mind </i>considers the question through an in-depth look at cognitive psychology laboratories. Interacting with scientists and study participants, Emily Martin traces how psychological research methods have evolved, escaped the boundaries of the discipline, and infiltrated the foundations of social media and our digital universe.

Taking readers behind the scenes, Martin recounts her participation in psychology labs over multiple years, and she conveys their activities through the voices of principal investigators, graduate students, and subjects. Despite popular claims of experimental psychology’s focus on isolated individuals, Martin finds that the history of the field—from early German labs and British experiments in the Pacific Islands to Gestalt psychology—has led to modern research methods that are, in fact, highly social. She then shows how these methods are deployed online: amplified by troves of data and powerful machine learning, an unprecedented model of human psychology now abounds, one in which statistical measures pair with algorithms to predict, manipulate, and influence users’ behavior.

Revealing the real-world consequences of investigations into trust, learning, and memory, 
Experiments of the Mind examines how psychology research has shaped us to be perfectly suited for our networked age.
9780691232652 Spark Jorgensen, Timothy J.     2021 432 A fresh look at electricity and its powerful role in life on Earth

When we think of electricity, we likely imagine the energy humming inside our home appliances or lighting up our electronic devices—or perhaps we envision the lightning-streaked clouds of a stormy sky. But electricity is more than an external source of power, heat, or illumination. Life at its essence is nothing if not electrical.

The story of how we came to understand electricity’s essential role in all life is rooted in our observations of its influences on the body—influences governed by the body’s central nervous system. <i>Spark</i> explains the science of electricity from this fresh, biological perspective. Through vivid tales of scientists and individuals—from Benjamin Franklin to Elon Musk—Timothy Jorgensen shows how our views of electricity and the nervous system evolved in tandem, and how progress in one area enabled advancements in the other. He explains how these developments have allowed us to understand—and replicate—the ways electricity enables the body’s essential functions of sight, hearing, touch, and movement itself.

Throughout, Jorgensen examines our fascination with electricity and how it can help or harm us. He explores a broad range of topics and events, including the Nobel Prize–winning discoveries of the electron and neuron, the history of experimentation involving electricity’s effects on the body, and recent breakthroughs in the use of electricity to treat disease.

Filled with gripping adventures in scientific exploration, <i>Spark</i> offers an indispensable look at electricity, how it works, and how it animates our lives from within and without.